1 Continuation .....................
In pursuance whereof Dom Vicente da Fonseca, a Friar, of the Order of St. Dominick, and Arch-Bishop of Goa, having called a Provincial Council, which was the third of Goa, ordered the forementioned Brief to be intimated to Mar Abraham, and together with the Pope’s, his own, and the Viceroy’s Letters of safe Conduct, to be sent to him.
Mar Abraham, having well considered the matter, and perceiving how difficult it would be for him to escape being Dragoon’d by the Portuguezes, whose power increased daily in those Parts, if he should disobey this Summons, determined, whatever came on it, to repair to the Council, at which he assisted, and was obliged once more to Abjure, and make a profession of the Roman Faith, promising withal, to see all the Decrees made in that Synod, in relation to his Bishoprick, punctually executed, and to send in all the Heretick Books in his Diocess to be burned or amended; and having confessed, that in the Ordination of Priests there was no Wine in the Cup, which he delivered into their hands, together with the Host, he was commanded to Ordain all that he had Ordained before over again.
Now if this, of there being no Wine in the Cup, which was delivered into the hands of those who were Ordained Priests, was the only ground whereon the Romanists founded the invalidity of the Chaldean Orders, as it is the only thing they have been pleased to instance in, what a stretch was this to invalidate the Orders of a whole Church by ? But for Canonists and Schoolmen by Subtilties invented on purpose to support a late Error, or to serve a present turn, to wound Christianity in its very Vitals, is a practice too common to be wondred at. I am sure the Church of Rome has much more reason to apprehend that the Sacrilege of denying the Cup to the Laity in the Sacrament, may make her Communion imperfect and ineffectual, than that this alone should make Ordinations so.
But after all this stir, the Doctrine of the delivering the Bread and Cup into the hands of those who are to be ordained Priests, being essential to Orders, is so far from being true, that it is owned to be a Novelty by all the Modern Learned Divines of the Church of Rome, and is moreover contradicted by her daily Practice, who, as all the World knows, allows the Greek Orders to be good, in the Collation whereof she knows, the Bread and Cup is not put into the hands of those who are ordained Priests.
It is true, the Council of Florence, in her Instructions to the Armenians, seems to have doted into the same Error with this of the Portuguezes, in making that new Ceremony essential to Orders. But let that be as it will, it is certain that both the present practice of the Roman Church, and all her truly Learned Sons, the Modern Schoolmen not excepted, do condemn it as an Error; for which I shall only quote two of her most eminent Schoolmen, and one of her ablest Criticks.
Cardinal Lugo, in his 2 Disp. de Sacramentis, saith as followeth, Aliunde autem habemus, non porrectionem panis & vini determinate requiri ex divina institutione, cum Graeci absque illa porrectione ordinentur; ergo fatendum est Christum Solum voluisse pro materia aliquod signum proportionatum hoc vel illud.
And Becanus, in the third part of his Scholastical Divinity, Chap. 26. of the Sacrament of Order, has as follows: Concilium Florentinum in instructione Armenorum solum meminit materiae accidentalis, que ab Ecclesia fuit instituta, which was the delivering of the Bread and Cup, non autem substantialis, quam Christus praescripsit, which is the imposition of hands, Quia haec ex Scripturis & antiquis Patribus erat satis cognita, non autem illa. Addo, si hoc argumentum valeret, posse optimè retorqueri ita, Antiqua concilia non assignant aliam materiam nisi impositionem manuum, ergo, &c. He concludes thus, Nota antiqua concilia assignâsse materiam à Christo institutam, Florentinum verò mateam assignâsse, quam Ecclesia introduxit, that is the Latin only. By this one may see, that the Church of Rome is not so uniform a Body as she pretends to be, being thus inconsistent with her self in a thing of so high a nature, as that, of what is, and what is not essential to Orders: and we may see likewise, how she will break thorow all ancient Doctrines and Rules, rather than not disgrace all Bodies of Christians, which deny her Obedience, by unchurching them by some subtilty or other; and indeed, thorow the clearest evidences of matter of Fact, as she does in the case of the Orders of the Church of England. And furthermore, how apt she is to look upon her own novel Inventions as the main Substantials of Religion.
To whom I shall only add Morinus, whose judgment in a case of this nature is of more weight, than that of the whole Tribe of Schoolmen. Who in the 1 Chap. of his first Exercitation, De Sacris Ordinationibus, saith, Nemo, ut mihi videtur, dubitare potest, antiquos Latinos, à quibus accepimus & Ordinationes, & quod sacerdotes sumus, legitimè & validè sacerdotes consecrasse, & caetera sacrarum Ordinationum munia contulisse: Eadem antiquorum Graecorum ratio. Certissimum enim est & evidentissimum; neminem Ordinationes Graecas criminari posse, quin crimen in Latinas redundet, cum utrique mutuo alterius Ordinationes probaverint : Graecusque apud Latinos, & Latinus apud Graecos sine ullâ unquam Ordinationis querelâ sacra Mysteria celebraverit: pari veritatis evidentia certum est recentiores Latinos in hunc usque diem legitimas Ordinationes celebrasse & celebrare, eadem ratio hodiernorum Graecorum, cum ut ex iis que manifestissimè us àutoyix. quadam demonstrata sunt, ab antiquis non differant, eosque publicè in suis Ordinibus ministrantes suscipiat Ecclesia Romana, semperque susceperit. And in his seventh Exercitation, Speaking of the delivering the Bread and Cup into the hands of those that are ordained Priests, he acknowledgeth it to be a late Ceremony in the Roman Church. Antiqui Rituales Latini, non secus ac Graeci, istam instrumentorum traditionem nobis non exhibent : Quidquid spectat ad illam materiam & formam ab iis abest. Duo ritus Ordinationis editi, unus Romae in sancti Gregorii sacramentario ex Bibliotheca Vaticanâ, alter Parisiis ab Hugone Mainardo, ex Bibliothecâ Corbeiensi, ista omnia nobis non representant duo antiquissimi Petaviani literis uncialibus scripti qui prae caeteris eminent, duo alii secundum istos antiquissimi & egregiè splendidèque scripti, qui ampli sunt, & multa Ordinationibus illis exhibent, quae videri possunt non necessaria, quorum unus est Rotomagensis, alter Rhemensis. Tres alii, quorum primus Senonensis est, duo alii Corbeienses, unus à Rodrado scriptus, nunc vertitur annus, octogentesimus primus, alter a Rotaldo praecedente multo junior, sed copiofissimus, qui quaecunque noverat ad Ordinationes pertinere, iis ditavit Sacramentarium suum; denique unus è Bibliothecâ Thuanâ perantiquus, & alter Bellovacensis. In all which ancient Rituals, he saith, there is a profound silence of this Ceremony.
The Council being ended, Mar Abraham returned to his Bishoprick, where he observed nothing of what he had promised and swore, save that of ordaining his Priests again the third time, at which Ordinations there were several Jesuites, who were skilled in the Syriack Tongue, that assisted to see that nothing was omitted that was essential.
Not long after a Letter of Mar Abraham to the Patriarch of Babylon was intercepted, wherein he informed him of his having been at a Council of the Bishops of the Indies at Goa, whither he had gone purely out of fear of the Portuguezes, who, he said, were over his Head, as a Hammer over an Anvil : but when he was there, that he had delivered in a Profession of his Faith, which none of the Latin Bishops were able to contradict, professing himself to his Patriarch a Dogmatist of the Chaldaean Faith.
Mar Abraham being grown ancient and very much broke, by the long and unintermitting Persecutions of the Portuguezes, was willing to have a Coadjutor from Babylon, who might, after his Death, also succeed him in his Bishoprick, and accordingly had one Mar Simeon sent to him by the Patriarch of Babylon.
Mar Simeon was no sooner fixed in the Serra, but, finding the People, by reason of his never having had anything to do with the Latins, to have a much greater Affection for him than they had for Mar Abraham, who, tho’ to his Sorrow, had been so much among them, he was encouraged to set up for sole Bishop, and having fixed his See at Carturte, one of the principal Towns of the Christians of St. Thomas, was much favoured by the Queen of Pimenta, in whose Territories Carturte is.
These two Bishops fell presently to fulminate their Excommunications one against another, to the great disturbance of the whole Diocess, and Mar Abraham finding his Adversary to gain ground of him daily, complains of him to the Viceroy and Arch-Bishop of Goa, desiring them to drive Mar Simeon out of the Serra, who was not only an Intruder, but a bitter Enemy to the Latin Faith.
The Viceroy, tho’ he had no great kindness for Mar Abraham, yet considering that he was Bishop of the Serra, by the Pope’s appointment resolved, if it were possible, to ease him of his Adversary, and understanding that it would be a difficult thing for him to get Mar Simeon into his hands by open force, he employed some Franciscan Friars to inveigle him with fair promises to go to Rome, and get the Pope’s Brief for the Bishoprick, without which he could never expect to enjoy it peaceably.
Mar Simeon having first constituted one Jacob, a Parish Priest his Vicar General during his Absence, was perswaded by the Friars to go along with them to Cochim, from whence he was sent to Goa, and from Goa upon the first Ships to Portugal, and from thence to Rome, where, after having been examined by the Inquisition, he was declared by Pope Sixtus V. not to be in Holy Orders, and was with that Sentence upon him sent by the Cardinal St. Severiana to Philip the Second, who put him into the hands of Dom Aleixo de Menezes, whom he was then sending to Goa, to be Arch-Bishop of that place.
Arch-Bishop Menezes, instead of carrying him along with him to the Indies, which was what Mar Simeon expected, confined him to a Franciscan Convent in Lisbon, from whence he is said to have wrote Letters by every Fleet, that went to the Indies to his Vicar-General Jacob, and in all his Letters to have still stiled himself Metropolitan of the Indies, and to have profess’d the Chaldaean Doctrines; these Letters were found by Arch-Bishop Menezes in the Serra, when he visited it, by whom they were sent to the chief Tribunal of the General Inquisition of Portugal, where if they found Mar Simeon alive, they doubtless made him change his Franciscan Prison for that of the Inquisition, where they would take care he should write no more such Letters.
Dom Matthias, Arch-Bishop of Goa, having in the Year 1590. called another Provincial Council, did, in conformity to Gregory XIII’s Brief, Summon Mar Abraham to repair to it, who being sensible how ill he had complied with what he promised in the former Council, returned no other Answer to the Summons, but a Saying, which, he said, was a Proverb in his Country, That the Cat that bites a Snake is afraid of her Cord, intimating thereby, that he durst not trust the Portuguezes and Latin Bishops any more : After which he dissembled no longer, but in all things declared himself to be of the Chaldaean Faith.
Clement VIII. being informed of all this, dispatched a Brief, bearing date the 27th. of January 1595. wherein he Commanded Dom Aleixo de Menezes, Arch-Bishop of Goa to make Inquisition into the Crimes and Errors of Mar Abraham, and in case he found him guilty of such things as he had been accused of, to have him apprehended and secured in Goa, as also to appoint a Governour or Vicar - Apostolical of the Roman Communion over his Bishoprick, and upon Mar Abraham’s Death to take care that no Bishop coming from Babylon should be suffered to enter into the Serra to succeed.
This Brief was delivered to the Arch-Bishop before he went to the Indies, by virtue whereof, and in obedience to the Pope’s Commands, he made Inquisition into the Crimes and Errors of Mar Abraham, and finding him guilty of all that he had been accused of, he sent him his Process without Summoning him to appear at Goa, by reason of his having been Bed-rid for some time.
The Arch-Bishop furthermore understanding by the Informations he had taken, that Mar Abraham, in conjunction with all the Christians of his Diocess, had sent to the patriarch of Babylon for another Coadjutor, Commanded those of Ormus and of all other places that lay in the way, under grievous Censures, to stop all Chaldaean, Persian or Armenian Ecclesiasticks that should come towards the Indies without his Pass. This Order was so punctually executed, that one who came to Ormus with the Title of the Arch-Bishop of the Serra, was discovered in a disguise, and sent home again. There were several others of those Priests and Bishops who attempted to get into the Serra in the Habit of Mariners, were stopt, to the great Grief of the Christians of St. Thomas, who, the more they saw their Clergy Persecuted, respected them the more, and grew every day more zealous for their ancient Doctrines and Rites.
The Arch-Bishop being much encouraged by the Success of this diligence, laid the matter of the reduction of this Church to the obedience of the Roman, much more to Heart than any of his Predecessors had ever done. The first he applied himself to was Jacob, whom Mar Simeon had left his Vicar General, to whom he writ a long Letter, passionately entreating him to throw away the Commission he had from Mar Simeon, who was Convicted at Rome of not being in Holy Orders, and to submit himself to the Papal Authority; making him large Promises of what he would do for him, if he complied with his desires. But Jacob, who died presently after, was deaf to all the Arch-Bishop could say to him, making it his whole business to enflame his Flock against the Latins, and their Doctrines.
The Arch-Bishop did not neglect at the same time to write earnestly to Mar Abraham, as also to the Arch-Deacon, who is the only Dignitary in that Church under the Bishop, and who is employed by him as his Vicar General, calling upon them to purge their Diocess of the Errors wherewith it had been so long infected, and to reduce it to the Roman Obedience.
St. Francis, about this time, destroyed a whole Fleet of Jores to the Portugueze, who, tho’ he was not seen by any of the Portuguezes in the Fight, which was very bloody on both sides, yet a Cook who belonged to a Capuchin Convent not far off, having hid himself in the Ruines of their Church, saw a Friar in his own Habit Board the Fleet of Jores, one after another, whom he so terrified with his very look, as to put them all to flight immediately, and pursued them out of fight: This formidable Friar was afterwards discovered to be St. Francis; but tho’ the Historian has not been pleased to tell us how it came to be known certainly, he tells us it was an Action very proper for St. Francis, who was the lively Image of Christ, to appear thus and confound the Enemies of Christianity, by saying, It is 1. Now, if this story did not rebuild the Capuchins ruined Church, the Portuguezes were not so grateful as they use to be in such cases. But this was nothing to what their own St. Anthony did for them five or six years afterwards in a Land Battle, wherein he was seen by several, where the greatest fury of the Battle was, Mowing down whole Squadrons of the Enemy, and at the same time extinguishing the Fire of the Enemies Artillery with the Sleeve of his Sacred Habit. There were several Portuguezes, its true, fell in this Fight, but they must have been killed by something else than Fire-Arms, or at least than Cannon.
In the Year 1584. there came a famous Amazon to Goa, who had been drove out of her Country by the Hidalcaon; her name was Abehi; she had Fought in several Battles to admiration; and tho’ when she came to Goa, she was 62 years of Age, she is reported to have had a great deal of Wit, and the ruines of an exquisite Beauty; she pretended to have business of great moment to communicate to the Viceroy, but the Inquisition, no body knew why, put a stop to the negotiation; which, after having kept her prisoner for some time, banished her to Ormus, from whence having made her escape, she went to the Great Mogul’s Court.
In the year 1593. the Bull of Cruzada was first brought into the Indies by Francisco Faria, a Dominican Friar; and indeed considering how great a Revenue that Bull is to the Pope in Spain and Portugal, it is very much that it did not find its way into the Indies sooner.
When the Arch-Bishop was visiting the city of Damaon, he received Letters of the 16th. of Feb. 1597. from the Viceroy Matthias Dalbuquerque, advising him of the Death of Mar Abraham. On the same day he received this news, he in obedience to the Pope’s Brief, constituted Francisco Roz, a Jesuite, and who was afterwards made Bishop of the Serra, Governour and Vicar Apostolical of the said Diocess.
The May following the Arch-Bishop being returned to Goa, a consultation was held about the Affairs of the Church of the Serra, where it was unanimously agreed; that notwithstanding the Pope in his Brief had commanded none to be made Governour or Vicar Apostolical of the Diocess, but what was of the Roman Communion, it was convenient to nominate the present Arch-Deacon to it, which they did, joining Francisco Roz, and the Rector of the Jesuites-College of Vaipicotta, in commission with him. But it being required of the Arch-Deacon, that he shou’d subscribe the Profession of Faith made by Pius IV. before he had his patent he declined doing it, pretending he was not satisfied with having two joyned with him in commission.
The Arch-Bishop, tho’ he was sensible that it was the subscription that stuck with him chiefly, thought fit to dissemble, so far as to seem to believe him, and by a new Patent constituted him the sole Governour of the Bishoprick.
The Arch-Deacon accepted of this Patent, but at the same time declared, that it gave him no Authority but what he had before; but when he was called upon to Subscribe the forementioned Profession of Faith, he desired four Months to consider of it, hoping by that time a Bishop might be sent them by the Patriarch of Babylon, when the four Months were expired. Being urged a fresh to subscribe, he told them flatly, that he would never do it, nor submit to the Roman Church, which he was sure had nothing to do with the Apostolical Church of St. Thomas, no more than that of St. Thomas had to do with the Roman. And not being satisfied with having made this Declaration as to himself, he furthermore assembled a Synod of most of the Priests, and most substantial Christians at Angamale, the Metropolis of the Diocess, where they all swore to stand by their Arch-Deacon, in the defence of the ancient Faith they and their Fore-fathers had been bred up in, so as not to suffer the least alteration to be made therein, nor ever to admit of any Bishop, but what should be sent them by the Patriarch of Babylon; of all which they made a publick Instrument, and having sworn to maintain it with their lives and Fortunes, ordered it to be published thorow the whole Diocess.
After the meeting of this Synod, the Christians of St. Thomas came to be so far enraged against the Latins, for what they had done to destroy their ancient Faith, and for their having treated so many of their Arch-Bishops, so barbarously as they had done, that they would suffer no Latin Priest to officiate in their Churches, nor so much as to live among them. Two Jesuites, one at Angamale, and another at Carturte, having very narrowly escaped being murdered by them. The Jesuites, and other Latin Priests, were so far intimidated, by the fury that Synod had put that whole Christianity into, that for some time none of them were found so hardy, as to venture to go among them.
The news of this great and unexpected Heat, as it did strangely afflict the Arch-Bishop, who had set his Heart so much on the reducing of those Christians; so it was the thing that made him resolve to go in Person to the Serra to try what his Presence and Authority would do.
Not only the Viceroy, but the whole Clergy and Laity, and particularly the whole ` of Goa, together in a b0ody, did all they could, as it is said, to disswade him from so dangerous an enterprise, but tho’ he was deaf to all the Remonstrances of his Friends, yet upon a War breaking out suddenly in the Year 1598. betwixt the Kings of Mangate and paru, in whose Territories most of these Christian Churches stand, he thought fit to put off his Journey for that Year, satisfying himself with writing a Letter to the Arch-Deacon to perswade him to reconcile himself and his Church to that of Rome, and acquainting him with his Intentions to visit all the Churches in the Serra in Person, so soon as the forementioned War was over, which he believed would be very speedily.
The Arch-Deacon, when he received this letter, dreading nothing so much as the Arch-Bishop’s coming in Person among them, declared that he had refused to subscribe the forementioned profession of Faith, for no other reason, but because he was Commanded to do it before the Rector of the Jesuites College of Vaipicotta, with whom and his whole Order he pretended to be justly dissatisfied, giving the Arch-Bishop to understand at the same time, that if he would order any other Priest or Friar to take his Subscription, that he was ready to make it.
But the Arch-Bishop looking upon this only as a Trick to throw an Odium upon the whole Order of Jesuites, and that for no other reason, but because they were the most industrious in the reduction of those Christians to the Roman Faith, would not comply with the Arch-Deacon’s Request, in naming some body else to take his subscription ; for which Conduct the Arch-Bishop was very much blamed, most people, and especially the other Orders of Friars murmuring against him, as one grown so fond of the Jesuites, as to lose the reduction of so many thousand souls, rather than displease the Jesuites.
But the Jesuites, who sacrifice all Interests and Obligations to the Honour of their Order, have requited the Arch-Bishop but very ill for this his great kindness for them, in having reported this Affair so here in Europe, as to rob him of that which he esteemed his chief Glory, to wit, the Reduction of this Church to the Roman Faith.
For in the History of the Jesuites in the Indies, published by Pieire du Jarri, a Jesuite, and printed at Bourdeaux, in the Year 1608. we have all that is said by the Portuguezes of Mar Abraham, and his Arch-Deacon’s great aversion to the Roman Church, and particularly to the whole Order of Jesuites, flatly contradicted; for in that History we are told that Mar Abraham had such an extraordinary kindness for the Jesuites, that for some time before his Death, he put himself so entirely into their hands, as to be governed by them in all things; and that the Arch-Deacon George had such an high opinion of their worth, as to declare to all the World, that without their aid and assistance, he should not know after the Arch-Bishop’s Death, how to Govern the Diocess. It is furthermore said, that Mar Abraham, when he was upon his Death-bed called the Rector of the college of Vaipicotta to him, and having all his Clergy about him, declared, that he committed his Flock to the Bishop of Rome, as the chief Pastor and Prelate of the whole Church, and Commanded the Arch-Deacon, and all his priests, to obey the Jesuites, whom his Holiness had sent to cultivate that Vineyard in all things, and to be sure to follow the Doctrines that they taught, which were the whole truth, and nothing but the truth; after which Charge he is said furthermore to have beseeched and conjured the Rector, by the love of Christ, and the great friendship there had been always between them, to take care of the Government of his Church after his Death, and to have ordered an authentick instrument to be made of all this to remain as a Testimony of his last will, and of the Faith he died in.
The same History furthermore tells us, that this Church was so far reconciled to the Pope, in the Year, 1596. that when the Jubile of Clement VIII. was published among them by the Jesuites, they gave his holiness a thousand Blessings for it, and took a singular pleasure in pronouncing his Name; and that during the whole time of the Jubile, they were at Church from Morning to Night, without taking any refection, and were so zealous to confess themselves to the Fathers, that they waited in the Church till midnight in great Crowds to do it. Now according to this report of things, the Arch-Bishop, when he came into the Serra, had little more to do than to open his Arms to embrace a people, who, being before hand prepared by the Jesuites, were ready to throw themselves into them.
But to leave romance, and return to History, having only observed by the way, that it is visible from this gross misrepresentation of those Affairs, how little regard is to be had to the Jesuites Reports of their Feats in the Indies; since to support a Story purely invented for the Honour of their Order, they do not boggle to pretend to have an authentick instrument of the truth of it, and that drawn up by the Order of a dying Prelate.
But a thing happened at this time, which, tho’. in it self not considerable, did abundantly manifest how little disposed the Clergy of this Church was to submit to the Pope.
A Boy, that went to school to the Jesuites at Vaipicotta, having been taught by them to name the pope in his Prayers before the Patriarch of Babylon, being over-heard doing it in the Church by some of the Malabar Priests, was, after they had beat him severely, turned out of the Church; they spoke also to his Father to whip him out of praying for the Pope, who, they said, was none of their Prelate, nor had any thing to do with them. The Arch-Bishop being informed thereof, writ immediately to the Arch- Deacon, commanding him to make Examples of those impudent Hereticks, for what they had said and done to the Boy: which the Arch-Deacon was so far from doing, that he Honoured them the more for it. By the way, the Jesuites, teaching their Scholars to pray for the Patriarch of Babylon, tho’ after the Pope, is one instance, among others, of their Conscience, in those Parts, being subservient to their Policy.
But the world continuing still to blame the Arch-Bishop for not putting the Affairs of the Serra into some other hands than those of the Jesuites, against whose order that whole Church was so much incensed, he was obliged at last, tho’ contrary to his Inclination, to send a Franciscan Friar to the Arch-Deacon, with authority to take his subscription to the Roman Creed, and to require him to punish the Priests, who had beat the Boy for naming the Pope in his Prayers.
The Arch-Deacon having nothing to object against the Franciscan Friar, and being extreamly desirous, if it was possible, to keep the Arch-Bishop from coming into the Serra, tho’ he refused to subscribe the Creed of Pius IV. yet condescended to subscribe a confession of Faith, wherein he professed himself a Catholick, and that he believed as the Church believed, but without naming the Roman, or acknowledging the pope as universal pastor of the Church; he is furthermore said, upon the Arch-Bishop’s signifying his dissatisfaction at the ambiguous profession he had made, to have given his consent publickly to that of Pius IV. being read to him in Portugueze, of which he did not understand a syllable. But let that be as it will, it is certain that he continued still to teach, that the Pope was the head of his own Church, but had nothing to do with that of St.Thomas.
The Arch-Bishop not being able to brook such things any longer, fix’d a day for his going towards the Serra, and when the Viceroy and the whole Clergy beg’d of him not to expose his person to such visible danger, they could have no other answer from him but this, That his life was but too secure in this case, seeing he had never merited enough to entitle him to the Honour of being a Martyr. However, lest his Humility might deceive him in passing a judgment upon himself, he did not think fit to trust too much to his want of merits; and for that reason went attended with a good Guard, he had also a Commission to treat with all the princes of Malabar, about peace and War, and particularly to engage the Samorim to assist the Portugueze to take cunahle, a Fortress lately possessed by a company of Mahometan Pyrates, who did very much disturb the Portugueze Trade upon that Coast. This Nest of Pyrates, was first built by one pate Marca, a Mahometan, who having in a short time enriched it strangely with the spoils of the portuguezes, both by Sea and Land, left it at his Death to his Nephew Mahomet Cunahle Marca. This Mahomet was Governour, or rather Prince of it at this time; and as he was nothing inferior to his Uncle in Courage or Conduct, so he had Fortified the place so as to make it absolutely one of the strongest Garrisons in the Indies, neither did he insult the Portuguezes only, but the Malabars also, and particularly the Samorim, in whose Country Cunahle stood, and who had given leave to his uncle to fortifie that place, on purpose to incommode the Portugueze.
And tho’ the Portugueze Historians will have it, that he took this Affair of Cunahle only in the way to his visitation; yet by the course of his procedure, one would be tempted to think, that it was what principally carried him to those parts.
On the 27th. of December, 1598. the Arch-Bishop Embarked upon a Gally Commanded by Don Alvaro de Menezes, and on the day of epiphany, arrived at the Bar of cunahle, where he joined the whole Portugueze Armada, commanded by the Viceroy’s Brother, he was saluted with all the Guns and Musick of the fleet; and having called a Council of War, and heard the several opinions of all the captains concerning the best way to take cunahle, he dispatched the resolution they had come to thereon, to the Council of State at Goa; a most apostolical beginning of a visitation. After having put the siege of Cunahle into a good posture, he departed with a good convoy to Cananor, where he continued 16 days, and then sailed to Cochim, where he was splendidly received by the Governour and the whole City, at the Stairs they had made on purpose for him to Land at.
Next day, when the Magistrates of the city came to Complement him at his House, he acquainted them with his design of reducing the Christians of St. Thomas before he returned to Goa, desiring their assistance therein, which they frankly promised him.
The day following His Grace having called the common council of the City together, recommended the enterprise of Cunahle to them, whom he made so sensible of how great importance it was to their City above all others, to have that Fortress wrested out of the hands of the Mahometan Pyrates, who had lately made themselves Masters of it, that they immediately caused 150 Men to be Raised and Armed at their own Charge, whom, together with a great quantity of all sorts of Ammunition, they sent upon five stout ships to joyn the Armada before cunahle; the Arch-Bishop also, to give the more life to the enterprise, sent one of the best of his own Manchua’s or Yachts, mann’d with his own menial servants, along with them.
The king of Cochim was much troubled to hear of the Arch-Bishop’s being so hot upon the reduction of cunahle, being sensible that a peace betwixt the Portuguezes and the Samorim, without whose assistance by Land, it wou’d be hard for them to reduce that Fortress, must be the Consequence of the enterprise. And as there had been nothing, the Kings of Cochim had been always more careful to hinder such a peace, which they than did on purpose to keep the Portuguezes in a closer dependance upon them; so the present king following the wise measures of his Ancestors, endeavour’d, by a Stratagem, to destroy the Confidence he saw the Portuguezes had already reposed in the samorim. To which end he sent his Chief Justice, and one Joan de Miranda, a Gentleman of Cochim, to wait upon the Arch-Bishop and to acquaint his Grace from him, that he had received certain advice from some spies he had in the Samorim Cabinet-Council, that that prince, whenever the Portuguezes Landed, instead of joyning with them, had determined to cut them all off in revenge of the many Injuries they had done his ancestors, of which danger he thought himself obliged, both as a Friend and a Brother in Arms to the king of Portugal to advise him.
The Arch-Bishop, who understood the Intrigues of Princes, as well as any Man living, returned the King his Thanks for his Intelligence, but withal sent him word, that they were resolved to trust the Samorim in this occasion; and the rather, because they did not want Power to be revenged on all that should deceive the king of Portugal either in Peace or War.
The king, when he found his plot had not succeeded according to his expectation, resolved to divert the Samorim from sending an Army to Cunahle, by making a War presently upon the Caimal, or Prince of Corugeira his friend and Allie: and having with incredible expedition got an Army of 60000 Men together, he sent to let the Arch-Bishop know, that before he marched he designed to wait upon him. The Arch-Bishop, tho’ he did not go over his Threshold to meet the King, received him, when he came, with great Civility; and after the Complements were over, acquainted him first, with his Intention of visiting all the Christian Churches in the Serra, in order to reduce them to the true Christian Faith, from which they had very much swerved; telling him, that since great numbers of those churches were within his Territories, he expected his assistance in so good a work; of which being assured by the King, the Arch-Bishop went on and told him, that there was another thing that he must not deny him, and that was to put off his War with the Caimal till Cunahle was taken; the king gave many reasons why he could not deferr it; but the Arch-Bishop prest him so hard upon the point, that before they parted, he made him promise to disband his Army.
The Arch-Bishop having put the Affairs of the Siege in a good posture, begun to apply himself to the reduction of the Christians of St. Thomas, and the first step he made towards it, was to send to the Arch-Deacon to come and speak with him at Cochim. But after having expected him some days, and finding that he neither came himself, nor returned him any answer, he concluded, as well he might, that he was afraid to venture himself in that City; whereupon he sent him a Letter of safe conduct, swearing he would not question him about any thing that was past.
The Arch-Deacon, upon this occasion, Assembled a great number of Caçanares, and other considerable Christians to consult together what was best to be done. It was agreed on all hands, that the Arch-Deacon shou’d go and wait upon his Lordship, who was a person of that Authority as to be able to undo them all at once, by depriving them of their Pepper- Trade, if they should disoblige him, and besides, he was able to oblige their kings, who were all very much at his Devotion, to sacrifice all their Lives and Estates to his displeasure; and what made them the willinger to comply with him therein, was, their being confident that they should be quickly rid of his Company, since Winter was at hand, which they thought would certainly call him to Goa.
Upon all which Considerations it was agreed, That they should give way to his saying of Mass, and his Preaching in their Churches, which their Books told them was a common Civility, that is every where paid to Bishops, tho’ out of their own Diocesses; but as for any Acts of Jurisdiction, such as Visiting, Conferring Orders, Excommunicating, and the like, if he should pretend to exercise any such Acts, as it was to be feared he would, that they shou’d then put him off as well as they cou’d with delays, until he returned to Goa, which they thought he would in two Months at farthest; by which means they might, without embroiling themselves with so powerful a Prelate, wait till they had a Bishop sent them by the patriarch of Babylon, to whom they had writ for one; of all which they made a publick Instrument, and for their further Security, brought together a Body of 3000 brave Men, who were all well Armed; the Christians of St. Thomas being, by much, both the stoutest and best Firemen in the Indies, as the Portuguezes knew very well, which made them be the more zealous to reduce them to the Roman Church, in order to make them subjects to the king of Portugal.
The Arch-Bishop sent also at the same time to some of their paniquais, some of which have 4000, some 6000 Men at their Command, to come and speak with him at Cochim; but they, instead of going thither, took an Oath solemnly to make themselves Amouços, after the Custom of the Malavars, against him, in case he offer’d any violence to their Arch-Deacon, or to any other of their priests. When the Malavars devote themselves to be Amouços for any cause, they defend it to the last drop of their Blood, without either fear or wit.
With two of these Paniquais, and 3000 Men well Armed, the Arch- Deacon came to wait upon the Arch-Bishop at Cochim. Don Antonio de Noronha, the Governour of the city, met them without the Gates, and conducted them to the Arch-Bishop’s palace. The Arch-Deacon, when he came before the Arch-Bishop kneeled down and kiss’d his Hand, as did all the other Caçanares that were in his Company; the two Paniquais were also presented to his Lordship by the Arch- Deacon, who when the Arch-Bishop, and the Governour, and the Arch- Deacon came to sit down, placed themselves at the Elbows of the Arch-Bishop’s Chair, where they stood all the while with their broad swords naked over his Head. The door of the Room where they were being shut, to keep out the Crowd, those that stood without imagining that it was done to make their Arch-Deacon a Prisoner, said to one another, this is the time to die for our Arch-Deacon, and for the Church of St. Thomas, but being assured that their Arch-Deacon was in no danger, they were quieted.
After the hubbub was over, and they had discoursed together for some time, it was agreed, that the Arch-Bishop should go next day to Vaipicotta, which upon the account of its having a College of Jesuites in it, should be the first Church he should Visit, and that the Arch - Deacon with his Caçanares, should repair thither immediately.
The Arch - Bishop having furnished himself with all Necessaries for his Voyage, embarked with all his Retinue upon seven Tones or Gallies, and Roque de Mello Pereyro, who had been Governour of Malaca, attended him with two Gallies more, and Joan Pereyra de Miranda, who was afterwards Governour of Cranganor with one.
Being arrived at Vaipicotta, he was conducted by the Jesuites, and their Scholars, and the whole Village to the Church, where, with his Mitre on his Head, and his Crosier in his hand, he gave them a long Sermon. His Text was, He that entereth not in by the door, &c. on which words he told them at length, That none were true Pastors, but what entered in by the door of the Roman Church, and were sent by the Pope, who was Christ’s Vicar; which none of their former Prelates having been, who had been all sent to them by the Schismatical Bishops of Babylon, they were all Thieves and Murderers of the Flock. When he had done his Sermon, he bid them come next day to the Church to be confirmed, which some did; to whom, after he had confirmed them, he told the news of Purgatory, a place most of them had never heard of before.
All this while no Arch-Deacon appeared, who came not to Vaipicotta, till two days after the arrival of the Arch-Bishop. He had delayed his coming on purpose, that he might not by his presence, seem to consent to any of those things, which he knew the Arch-Bishop would offer to do at that place.
Tho’ the Arch-Bishop knew well enough what it was that had made the Arch-Deacon loiter so behind, yet he dissembled so far as to receive him very kindly, treating with him about the course he was to take in the reduction of the Church, who seemed to approve of every thing that was proposed to him.
The Arch-Bishop went daily to Matins and Vespers, which were sung by those of the Seminary in Chaldee, but coming to understand at last, for he understood Chaldee no more than he did Malavar, that they prayed therein for the Patriarch of Babylon, stiling him the Universal Pastor of the Church, a Title that all Patriarchs, as well as the Pope, have assumed to themselves for some Hundred of Years (nay, by what Gregory I. has said of that Title, I do not know but the Pope might be one of the last that assumed it) he resolved not to permit so wicked a thing to be done any longer, notwithstanding all that the good Jesuites, who out of Policy had all along complyed with it, could say to disswade him; and so having one Evening, without communicating his design to any one, called all the Jesuites, Masters of the Seminary, and the Arch- Deacon, and his Caçanares, together at his Lodgings, having first made a Speech to them to prove, That the Pope was the only Head of the Church on Earth, and that the Bishop of Babylon was a Heretick and Schismatick, he pulled out of his Pocket an Excommunication latae sententiae, commanding his Secretary to read it with an audible Voice, and his Interpreter to declare it to those that did not understand Latin, in Malavar, by which he Commanded, That no Person Secular or Ecclesiastick do from henceforward presume to pray for the Patriarch of Babylon. He Commanded the Arch-Deacon and Caçanares to sign it, and finding the Arch-Deacon had a great mind to have shuffled it off, he said to him, Sign it, Father, for it is full time the Axe were laid to the Root of the Tree; to which the Arch Deacon returned no answer, but Signed it without saying a word, as did all the other Caçanares, after which it was fixed to the Gates of the Church.
The Christians of the Village, when they came to hear of what had been done, run, as if they had been Mad, in a Body to the Arch- Deacon’s Lodgings, where, with one voice, they set up a most lamentable howl, crying out, That the Arch-Bishop of Goa, with his Portuguezes was come to destroy their Religion, and had affronted their Patriarch, by whom they had been Governed for above 1200 years; and after having exclaimed against the Arch- Bishop at a most bitter rate, and bewailed their great Misery, in having Strangers come among them to destroy the Religion they had been born and bred in, they told their Cassanares, that if they would but give way to it, they would either Sacrifice their Lives in defence of their Religion, or be revenged on those that had affronted it.
But the Arch-Deacon having made a sign, that he desired to be heard, they all held their Peace, he told them, There was a time for all things, and that that was not a time for Revenge, but Dissimulation; that it was true he had Signed the Excommunication, but that he did it purely out of Fear, for they were to consider, that, besides the Strength the Arch-Bishop had brought along with him, he had engaged the King of Cochim, in whose Country they were, to protect him in all he did, and who, if they should offer any affront to the Arch-Bishop, would certainly revenge it on their Lives and Estates. As to himself, he was resolved to die in defence of the Religion of his Country, sooner than consent to the introduction of Popery; adding, The Portuguezes, if they liked their own Religion, might live in it, in God’s Name, and he knew no Body that would trouble them for it; but that he saw no reason why they should thus disturb and persecute People in their own Country, because they will not turn Papists, or change their old religion for theirs, and that as to the Arch-Bishop, the thing that made him so furious to destroy the Authority of the Patriarch of Babylon was, that he might make himself Primate of the Indies; to which he hoped, none of the Christians of Malabar would ever consent, or would ever be perswaded to forsake their old Religion for that of Popery. At this they all gave a great shout, crying, They would lose their Lives, and all they had in the World, before they would do it. But none of the forementioned Amouços being among them, it’s like, at that time they went no further.
The Portuguezes upon this uproar, did not forbear to blame the Arch-Bishop, for having published such an Excommunication, contrary to the advice of all that were about him, advising him to hasten aboard his Galleys if he would secure his Person; he told them, He was so far from repenting for what he had done, that were it to do again, he would do it, and that instead of retreating to Cochim, he would go next Morning to Paru.
Paru is the Metropolis of a Kingdom, wherein the noblest Body of all the Christians of St. Thomas lives, but withal, the most violent against Popery, as they had sufficiently manifested on several occasions; for tho’ Don Jorge; du Cruz, and Don Joan du Cruz, both Natives of the Country, had been sent by the Portuguezes to Rome in the time of Gregory XIII. who had done them great Honours there, and had granted them many Indulgences for their Churches, and withal, a Privileged Altar therein, yet their Countrymen did not only slight all those Indulgences, but would not so much as suffer them, tho’ of two of the noblest Families in the Country, to officiate in any of their Churches, and at last forc’d them to leave the Kingdom, their own Brethren and Kinsfolk, having the first hand in their expulsion.
The Christians of Paru, tho’ thus affected to the Roman Church, had, according to the forementioned Agreement, prepared great Festivities for the reception of the Arch-Bishop, hoping, by such Complements, to have kept him from doing any business; but, having the Night before he came, heard of what he had done at Vaipicotta to their Patriarch, they turned all their Festivities into Arms, and were so much incensed against him, that when he Landed, he was met by eight or ten Persons only that waited on the Arch-Deacon.
The Arch-Bishop, tho’ he read trouble and dejection in all their Countenances, seemed to take no notice of it, but with his Cross carried before him went directly to the Church, which, contrary to Custom, he found full of Armed Men, without so much as one Woman or Child amongst them; whereupon, being apprehensive lest his Guards and Servants, if they continued ashoar, might come to Blows with the Malavars, whom he saw so much disposed to Quarrel, he Commanded them all aboard except two Priests, who were to assist at the Offices.
The Arch-Bishop having put on his Pontificals, and given his Blessing to the Congregation, made a long discourse to them, shewing them, That there was but one true Religion, which was the Roman, and that all Christians were under an indispensable obligation to submit themselves to the Pope. After he had done his Sermon, which lasted an hour and an half, and explained to them the Doctrine of the Sacrament of Confirmation, and then called upon them to come to it; the Congregation, tho’ they had heard him till then very quietly, began to cry out with great fury, That they would never be Confirmed by him, that being a thing that none of their Prelates had ever used, and that it was no Sacrament of Christ’s Institution, but an Invention of the Portuguezes to make them their Slaves, by setting a Mark on their Foreheads, and giving them a Box on the Ear, which is what all the Roman Bishops do in Confirmation, and tho’ the Dastards in Vaipicotta had been so tame as to suffer themselves to be buffeted and enslaved by him, they would never endure it, nor suffer him to touch their Beards, or their Wives Faces; that he might go home in a good hour to his Portuguezes, and let them alone with their Religion, and if he did continue to disturb them thus, it should cost him dear. The Arch-Bishop heard all this with great patience, and sitting down, endeavoured to convince them of the Truth of the Sacrament of Confirmation; but when he perceived that they were the worse, rather than the better for what he said to them, having mustered all his Courage together, he rose up, and having advanced two steps with his Crosier in his hand, he told them with great heat, That the Faith he Preached to them was the Faith of Christ and St. Thomas, and was believed by all Christians, and that he was ready to die to confirm the truth of it; but they being as ready to die for their Religion as he was, or pretended to be, for his, that Argument had no effect at all upon them. He furthermore challenged all those that Talked against the Roman Faith by Night in Corners, to come forth, if they durst, to dispute with him publickly; which the Arch-Deacon, who the Night before had assembled most of the considerable Christians of Paru together, and had made them promise never to throw off the Patriarch of Babylon, taking to himself, he rose up in a passion, and having asked aloud who they were that taught Heresies in the dark, and that Preached no where but in Corners, flung out of the Church, and going into the Town picked up eight or ten Boys, whom he presented to the Arch-Bishop to be confirmed by him, pretending, that with all that he was able to do, he could perswade no more to come: The Arch-Bishop having confirmed these Boys, returned to his Gallies very angry, and finding there was nothing more to be done at Paru, he determined to Sail next Morning to Mangate, to see how those Christians stood affected.
When he came to the Church of Mangate, a Town chiefly inhabited by Christians, he found the Church filled with Houshold Goods and Women, by reason of the War that was then on foot between the Kings of Mangate and Paru. After having comforted the Christians for the Losses they had sustained, and given them his Blessing, he began to Preach against the Errors they had been Educated in. But having advice that there were some Amouços coming after him from Paru, he went straightways aboard his Gallies, and rowing away before Night, he arrived next Morning at Cheguree, a place belonging to his Friend the King of Cochim; where having sent ashore an Order to the Caçanares and Christians to meet him at the Church, he had word sent him, that the Church doors were all shut, and there was neither Man, Woman, nor Child, to be seen in the whole Village; he was informed at Night, that the Arch-Deacon was in the Town, but that he had shut himself up in a House, and was resolved never to see his Lordship again.
The Portuguezes that were in his Train, as well Ecclesiasticks as Seculars, were at him perpetually to give over this enterprise, and not to expose his Person and Dignity (as he did) to no purpose; but instead of returning any answer to their Importunities, he retired all alone to his Cabin, where he wrote a long Letter to the Arch-Deacon, in which he swore that he remembred nothing that was past, and that he had no design of doing him any harm, and if he would but do him the favour to come and speak with him once more, he did not doubt but that he should be able to convince him of his Errors, promising with all to do great things for him, if he would but entirely submit himself to the Roman Church.
This Letter was delivered the same Night to the Arch-Deacon, who having read it, called the Caçanares together, and told them, that it being a scandalous thing in them to decline treating with the Arch-Bishop above board, about the Affairs of Religion, he was for their going to wait upon him to hear what he could say, but with such a Guard, that it should not be in his Power to make them Prisoners. Having all agreed to this Proposition, they sent to the Arch Bishop to let him know, That if he would be pleased to come ashoar, they would wait upon him: The Arch-Bishop sent them back word, That the Sun was too hot to stand in, and desired them therefore to come aboard his Galley, which lay with her Stern on ground. The Arch-Deacon and Caçanares seeing the Galley quite surrounded by their People ventured to go aboard; where being come, they were conducted to the Arch-Bishop’s Cabin, where they found him with all his Priests, Jesuites, and several Gentlemen expecting them. After some discourse, the Arch - Deacon told the Arch - Bishop, That it was true they had not received his Grace so courteously as might have been expected, nor indeed as they intended to have done, had he not fallen so foul upon their Patriarch, whom, tho’ he had been pleased to call an Excommunicate Heretick, they knew to be both a Catholick and a most holy Man, and endeavoured to introduce several Novelties into the Serra, which they and their Forefathers had never so much as heard of before. To all which the Arch-Bishop answered, That he was sure they were not ignorant of the Patriarch of Babylon’s being a Professed Nestorian, and not to trouble them with any Arguments to prove that all Nestorians must be Hereticks, he would only ask them one single Question, which was, Whether they believed the Gospel of St. John? They told him they did, and would die rather than deny any thing that was revealed in it. Well then, said the Arch-Bishop, pray tell me, how you can reconcile what St. John saith, The word was made Flesh, and dwelt among us, with what your Patriarchs and Bishops have taught you, to wit, that the Word did not make it self Flesh, and that Christ was not God, and that God did not make himself Man, for do you not sing in your Churches upon the Feast of the Nativity, that the Word did not make it self Flesh, as the unbelieving Romans teach, but did only dwell in Christ as in a Temple.
The Arch-Deacon returned no answer to this but passing to another point, said to the Arch-Bishop, Your Grace would fain perswade us likewise, that none can be saved out of the Obedience of the Roman Church, which is what St. John no where saith, that ever I could see; besides, we have in our Archives a Letter of St. Caius, Bishop of Rome, wherein he confesseth that he had nothing to do with the Church of Babylon, no more than the Church of Babylon had to do with his Church. We have also another Letter, which is called in our Books the Letter of the Lord’s - day, because it is said upon that day to have fallen down from Heaven, wherein the same Truth is affirmed. Here the Arch-Bishop run into a long discourse of the Primacy of St. Peter, and of the Pope’s being his Successor, and Christ’s Vicar upon Earth; after which they came at last to this Agreement; That as to matters of Faith, a Synod should be called to determine them; and that in the mean while the Arch-Bishop might, if he pleased, give the Blessing, and Preach in any of their Churches, but should not be received in them as their Prelate, but as a Bishop that was a Stranger, neither should he pretend to Confirm, or do any other Episcopal Act within that Diocess. This Agreement was Signed by the Arch-Bishop and the Arch-Deacon, and all the Caçanares who were present, with a Declaration that the Synod should be Celebrated before Whitsuntide, and that the Arch-Deacon should no longer stir up the People against him, nor go attended with such Troops of Armed Men as he had done formerly.
This Agreement being Signed, the Arch-Bishop set Sail for Canhur, whither the Arch-Deacon went by Land, not daring to trust himself by Water, where he would have been in the Power of the Portuguezes.
At Canhur he was received very friendly by the Christians, who had been told by the Arch-Deacon, that he did not pretend to come among them as their Prelate, but only as a Stranger, but tho’ he kept to his Agreement so far as not to offer to do any thing but give the Blessing and Preach, yet in his Sermon, which was a very long one, he talked so much of the Roman Church, and its Supremacy, and of the obligation all Churches were under to submit to it, that the whole Congregation were much offended with him; the Arch-Deacon was likewise discontented with it, and being Sick, or at least pretending he was, returned to Cheguree to be cured; and the Arch-Bishop having other work on his hands, was willing enough to dismiss him; who, in pursuance of the Instruction he brought with him from Goa, was obliged to hasten to Coulaon, a Fortress belonging to the Portuguezes, to see in what condition it was, and to take some course to have the Fort the King of Travancor was building in its Neighbourhood, and would much incommode it, demolished.
On the first of March he set Sail for a Castle that is within two Leagues of Cochim, where the Governour and Bishop of the City met him, to whom having communicated his Designs, he Sailed directly for Porcoa, where the King of the Country had been some days expecting him; he went to a Church that was there in the Evening, where he was kindly received by the Christians; the King, who professed a great Friendship for the Portuguezes, having Commanded them, upon pain of his displeasure, to comply with the Arch-Bishop in all things. After having Preached, he went to Lodge at the house of the Caçanar, whither the King came at Night to visit him; the Arch-Bishop entertained him very friendly, and thanked him for the kindness he had shewed to the Christians of St. Thomas, and their Churches, and for having cleared his Coast of Pyrates: the King, after some Complements desired to be admitted to the Honour of being a Brother in Arms to the King of Portugal, as the King of Cochim had been : The Arch-Bishop told him, that was an Honour the King of Portugal never did to any King, before he had merited it by some signal Service; however, he promised to do all that lay in his Power to help him to it.
Next Morning, the Arch-Bishop went to Church, where he said Mass, and afterwards confirmed the whole Congregation, notwithstanding his late solemn Promise to the contrary, as indeed none but Fools will ever expect, that Papists will observe any such Promises longer than the first opportunity they have to break them.
From Porcoa he sailed directly to Coulaon, where, under pretence of visiting a Church that stood near the Fort the King of Travancor was building, he took a view of the Fort, and finding it was near finished, and would in a few days have a Garrison put in it, he immediately dispatched away a Messenger to the Captain General of the Fleet and Troops that were before Cunahle, to come forthwith with his whole Armada to demolish the said Fort, which, if he came quickly, he might do with great ease, for that he would find none in it but Workmen.
Now you must know that the Arch-Bishop, when he was last at the Bar of Cunahle, notwithstanding that the King of Travancor and the Portuguezes were at that time in Peace, had left a private Order with the General, that so soon as he was Master of Cunahle, he should set Sail immediately with the whole Armada, and demolish this Fort, which, by reason of Cunahle’s not being yet taken, had not been executed.
But while the Arch-Bishop was expecting the Captain - General, he received the bad news of a great slaughter of Portuguezes in an Attack they had made upon Cunahle, and that the Captain-General was retired to Cochim to have his wounded Men cured; from whence he intended to come and wait upon him for further Orders.
The Arch-Bishop was extreamly troubled at this News, as well upon the account of the great numbers of Persons of Quality that had been killed in the Action, as because he feared it would very much hearten the Kings of Malabar, who had till then still looked upon the Portuguezes as Invincible. Wherefore, to prevent the ill effects that the true News of this Defeat might have upon the Minds of the Princes of Malabar, he dispatched Letters immediately to all of them to acquaint them with the great Victory the Portuguezes had obtained before Cunahle; and tho’ he acknowledged, that it was purchased with the Blood of several brave Men, among whom were some of his own Kindred, who were very dear to him, yet he did not doubt but that they would infallibly carry the Place, at the next Attack they made.
These tricks of the Arch-Bishop coming so thick, one upon the neck of another, for here we have no fewer than three of them in less than a Fortnight, puts me in mind of what Manuel de Faria saith of him in the 3d. Tome of his Asia Portuguesa, which I shall give the Reader in his own words, "Este illustre Prelado estuviera yo por ventura
"en el numero de los santos, si no passara a
"Espanna a donde le quito esta gloria, en la
"opinion mortal, la deficil del acierto en el
"maneio de los grandes puestos que vinoa ocupar,
"o fuessen solicitu dos, o fuessen ofrecidos. This Illustrious Prelate, had he never returned to Spain, had, in all probability, been made a Saint before this time, where, thro’ the difficulty there is in the managery of high Posts, whether offered to him or procured by Sollicitations, he lost all the Glory he had acquired in the Indies in the Opinion of the World.
His High Posts in Spain, which the Author saith he does not know whether he procured by Sollicitations or not, were the Primacy of Braga, and Viceroyship of Portugal, under Philip III. for two Years, and the Presidentship of the Council of State of Portugal at Madrid, in which Office and Court he died.
What his Miscarriages were in Spain, whereby he is said to have forfeited his Glory, I have not been able to learn; but whatever they were, one would think that the violating of a solemn Agreement openly, within a Week after it was made, and the ordering a Fort belonging to a Prince, that was in Peace with them, to be treacherously demolished, and the dispersing of notorious Falshoods only to serve a turn, ought to be no very good title to Saintship. But the Arch-Bishop, if he could have had hands to have executed it, had served the King of Travancor a much worse trick than this, when he was upon his Visitation that was after the Synod. We are told of a lively thing spoke by a Portugueze Captain, that was very brave, but had scarce Bread to eat, who, in this Siege, having seven of his Teeth struck out with a Musquet - Bullet, after he had wiped his Mouth said, The Mahometan had done him no Injury, and had known doubtless he had no need of Teeth. But to return to the Story.
The Arch-Bishop, after having sent this false News about, and having sent to the Queen of Changanate, to let her know, that he should not be able to meet her according to his Promise, until he returned; Sailed in great hast to Cochim, to conferr with the Captain-General, and to consult whether it would not be convenient to make an absolute Peace with the Samorim, and the rather because he had been so true to his Word, in carrying on the Siege of Cunahle. It was agreed on all hands that such a Peace would be convenient at that time; however, they would not venture to conclude it before they had the Viceroy’s Opinion of it, to whom they sent the Project.
The Arch-Bishop, after he had dispatched this business, Sailed to Molandurte, a great place of Christians, where he was received very kindly, which kindness of theirs is said to have cost them dear; for the King of Cochim, to whom Molandurte belongs, being grown extreamly jealous that the Arch-Bishop, under a pretence of reducing the Christians of St. Thomas to the obedience of the Roman Church, designed to bring them under the obedience of the Crown of Portugal, as it is plain he did from the 24th Decree of the last Action of the following Synod, for this very reason laid a great Tribute upon them, which they have not been able to this day to shake off; and furthermore Commanded them, upon pain of Death, to repair to Angamale to their Arch-Deacon, who being there, and having heard, it’s like, of the Arch-Bishop’s having violated their Agreement within less than a Week after it was made, begun to thunder out Excommunications against him, writing to all his Churches to have nothing more to do with him, and to all the Princes of Malabar, to have a care of him as a Person that had ill designs upon their Subjects.
While the Arch-Bishop was at Molandurte, where he confirmed and exercised all Episcopal Acts, he received Letters from the Viceroy approving his Project of Peace with the Samorim, and desiring him to return to Vaipim to Sign it, which he did in great haste, as did the Governour and Bishop of Cochim also, who both met him there.
This Peace was much promoted on the Samorim side by his Nephew and first Minister Uniare Cherare, who, notwithstanding he had been privately Christned by Father Roz, had leave to continue to Profess himself a Heathen still, the better to enable him to serve the Portuguezes, which he did effectually, both by communicating to them daily all the Secrets of his Uncles Cabinet Council, whereof he was President, and by disposing him to have a good opinion of the Portuguezes; which was what he would not have been in a capacity to have done, but would have been immediately disgraced, and turned out of all, had he discovered himself to have been a Christian so soon as he was Baptized. And as for the Arch-Bishop, we find he was so far from condemning either the Prince or the Jesuite for this scandalous dissimulation, that after the Celebration of the Synod he confirmed and anointed the Prince therein, by giving him the Sacrament of Chrism or Confirmation, with the same Secresie, and the same Dispensation as the Jesuite had given him that of Baptism.
After he had dispatched the Peace, Signed to the Captain- General, he set Sail for Diamper, the ancient Seat of several of the Bishops of the Serra, where meeting with several that had a mind to take Orders, there having been no Ordination in the Bishoprick for two Years, he gave notice that he intended to conferr Orders on the Saturday before the Fifth Sunday in Lent.
He writ also to the Arch-Deacon to come and assist at the Solemnity; the Arch-Deacon was much concerned at the news, and writ him back word, That this was contrary to the late Agreement they had made together, and that his doing of it would put an end to the Affair of the Synod, which he seemed to desire so much, since the principal point that was to be debated therein was, Whether he was their Prelate or no? But the Arch Bishop fansying that the Arch-Deacon talked of a Synod only to amuse him and gain time, writ him word, that nothing should hinder him from Conferring Orders at the time appointed; and not only so, but that he would exercise all other Acts of Episcopal Jurisdiction, in obedience to the Pope’s Briefs, to whom all the Churches of the World were subject. The Arch-Deacon finding he was absolutely determined to Ordain, desired him, since he was resolved to do’t right or wrong, to Ordain none but Latins, for so they called not only the Portuguezes, but all the Malavars, who were bred up under the Jesuites. The Arch-Bishop sent him word again, that he would Ordain both Latins and Chaldaeans, it being his business to destroy that distinction by bringing all Christians under one head. Upon this the Arch-Deacon finding nothing else would do, ordered an Edict to be published in all the Churches of the Diocess, prohibiting all Christians, upon pain of Excommunication, latae sententiae, to receive any Orders from him, with which he sent another Instrument, commanding all Priests and Christian People not to suffer him to come into any of their Churches, as also not to be present at any of his Masses or Sermons.
The Arch-Bishop had Preached two days following, and had confirmed a great many before these Instruments had reached Diamper; but after they came once to be published, they put a full stop to what went on so currently before : The oldest Caçanar of the Church requiring the Arch-Bishop, upon the receipt of them, to leave the place, and not to offer to set his Foot in their Church any more, nor to Confirm any Body, which among them, who anointed Children on the Head when they were Baptized, was an unnecessary Ceremony.
Notwithstanding this, the Arch-Bishop continued still a preaching, and when the day appointed for the Ordination was come, Ordained 37 on it, having first obliged them to subscribe the Faith of Pius IV. and to swear obedience to the Pope. After this Solemnity was over, the Arch-Bishop determined to pass the Holy Week, and Easter at Carturte, a considerable Town of Christians in the Dominions of the Queen of Pimenta. He took several Churches in his way thither, at some of which he met with a kind Reception, at others the Christians would not so much as see him. Being arrived at Carturte, after a dangerous Voyage, on the Friday before Palm-Sunday, he went to Church betimes next Morning, where having said Mass, and Preached, he Commanded the Congregation not to fail to be at Church next day, for that he had something of Importance to communicate to them; and having the same Night invited several of the most considerable Christians of the place aboard his Galley, by some means or other; for you must understand he was not sparing of his Money in this occasion, no more than he was of his Promises, he gained two of the most substantial among them intirely to his Party, who did him afterwards very great Service : Their Names were Itimato Mapula, and Itimane Mapula.
The Arch-Bishop not knowing but that the Portuguezes Musick might charm the common People, and reconcile them to the Latin Service, to which they seemed to have a great aversion, sent for a full Quire from Cochim, and on Palm Sunday had high Mass performed with the same Ceremony and Majesty that he could have had it done at Goa: but the Caçanares and People were so far from being satisfied with the Musick and pompous Ceremony of that Service, that if they liked it ill before, they liked it a great deal worse after that, as in truth none but they that place all Religion in external Performances can do otherwise, there being no Passion which that Service will not excite in its Spectators (which is all the People are) sooner than Devotion.
The Queen of Pimenta being importun’d to it by several Christians, and her own Jealousies, sent an Order to the Arch- Bishop to leave her Kingdom in three days upon pain of Death, and not to trouble her Subjects with his Novelties, under which, she had reason to apprehend some ill design against her State was couched. But the Arch-Bishop knew his own strength too well to be frighted away with paper Threats, and so sent the Queen back word positively, that he would not stir out of her Territories before he had finished the work that had brought him thither, telling her withal, That he was serving her rather than otherwise in what he was doing, and that her Ancestors had granted Privileges to the Arch-Bishop of the Serra, but being Infidels had never offered to concern themselves in the matters of their Religion; That if she should Murther him, she must know, that she Muthered the second Man in the Indies; and that his would be the dearest Blood that ever she spilt in her Life; since the Portuguezes, the Greatness of whose Power she and her Kingdom could not be but sensible of, having so often felt it, would infallibly Revenge his Death to the utmost.
What made the Arch-Bishop the stouter in this occasion, was his knowing that he had secured most of her Regedores, namely him of Carturte, and the Country about it to his Party, whom he had engaged by very rich Presents to favour and protect him in the execution of his designs. The Arch-Bishop having thus intimidated the Queen, and bribed her Officers, began to make bolder steps than he had offered to make before, and so seeing a Caçanar at Church one day, whom he had excommunicated but a little before, for having presumed to excommunicate him, he sent to him to get him out of the Church, which was no place for an excommunicate Rebel as he was. The Caçanar laughed at the Order, and told him very briskly, That he would not go out of the Church, for that he was none of his Prelate, neither did he value Roman Excommunications no more than he did the dirt under his feet; the Roman Church having nothing to do with the Church of the Serra; the Arch-Bishop not being able to bear such a publick Affront, and knowing his Party in the Church to be the stronger, commanded the Service and Musick to cease; and turning towards the place where the Caçanar stood, commanded him to come up to him, which the Caçanar refusing to do with great scorn; he was dragg’d up to him by some Caçanares, and others that he had gained to his Party, and being kept down upon his Knees before him, was commanded to beg his Lordship’s Pardon; he told them resolutely, He would die before he would do it, or any thing whereby he should acknowledge him his Prelate. The Arch-Bishop perceiving that he was not to be terrified into a compliance, ordered him to be turned out of the Church; the Caçanar told him, He would not be turned out of a Church where he had more to do than he had; upon this the whole Church was all in an uproar, some striving to keep him in the Church, and others to thrust him out, but the Arch-Bishop’s Party being the stronger, after a great disturbance, turned out he was.
The Night following several Caçanares and others, abjured the Patriarch of Babylon; and were reconciled to the Church of Rome at the Arch-Bishop’s Lodgings, which were over the Church. After which the Arch-Bishop was resolved either to make the Arch-Deacon bend, or to break with him totally; and so having all his Converts together, without whose advise he told them he would never do any thing; he declared to them that he could no longer bear with the Arch-Deacon’s Rebellion, and was therefore determined to depose him, and put another in his place, naming one Thomas Curia a near Kinsman of the Arch-Deacon’s, to be his Successor. They all owned that His Grace had great reason to be angry with the Arch-Deacon; but yet seeing he was but a young Man, and had had the ill luck to be in the hands of bad Counsellors, they intreated His Grace, before he declared his place void, to allow them some time to admonish him in, and to try whether they could not perswade him to Conformity; for which they desired but twenty days, promising, that if he did not submit within the time, that they would never own him more, but would submit to any Arch-Deacon that His Grace should set over them. Next day they sent six to treat with him, who, tho’ they took a great deal of pains to perswade him to submit himself to the Arch-Bishop, could not prevail with him to do it.
On Easter - Eve the Arch-Bishop had a second Ordination, whereat he Ordained a great many that had been hindred by the Regedores from coming to the first. The same day Francisco Roz, the Jesuite, who was afterwards made Bishop of the Serra by the Pope, came to wait upon the Arch-Bishop, who, after Mass, told him, That he could not believe he was in Carturte, where, not many Months ago, having a mind to say Mass, he was forced to have the Church doors opened to him by the Queen’s Regedor, and where, when he elevated the Sacrament, the People all shut their Eyes, that they might not see it; and beat one of his Scholars for having named the Pope in his Prayers; and when he shewed them an Image of our Lady, cried out, away with that filthiness, we are Christians, and for that reason do not adore fools or Pagods.
On Easter - day the Arch-Bishop intended to have a most solemn Procession, which the Heathens having notice of, were resolved either to hinder or disturb it; but finding they were not strong enough to do the former, by reason of the Regedore’s guarding the Arch-Bishop as he did, they hired the most infamous Sorcerer of the whole Country to kill the Arch-Bishop in the Procession, which he undertook to do with a Charm that had never failed him, but as he begun to do his Tricks in the Procession, he was seized on and sent to Prison, and a Currier was immediately dispatched away to the Queen to acquaint her with what had been done: The Queen straight ways sent back an Order, that he should be put on the Caloete, which is a sharp Stake fastned in the Ground, which being stuck thorow the Body of the Malefactor, he dies thereon in great torment. But the Arch-Bishop would not give way to his being punished so, but condemned him to greater punishment, in sending him to Cochim to Row in the Gallies as long as he lived, which shews how great the Arch-Bishop’s Power, however he came by it, was at Carturte, where he made his first great Conversion.
When the Morning-Service was over, the Arch-Bishop was invited by the Caçanares to the Nercha, which is a Feast kept in the Church on certain days, all the Christians that are present sitting down to it. The Bishop, if present, craves the Blessing, and in his absence, the eldest Priest of the Church. The Bishop has one half of the Provision, the Priests a quarter, and the People a quarter among them. In many Churches there are certain Rents dedicated to the maintenance of those Feasts, which seem to be the same with the Apostolical Agapae or Love-Feasts, I do not know but St. Paul might allude to this double Portion that the Bishop has at these Feasts, when he saith, That they who rule well, and labour in the Word and Doctrine, are worthy of double Honour; and the rather because he immediately subjoyns, Thou shalt not muzzle the Ox that treadeth out the Corn, &c. Besides it is evident from St. Cyprian, 34 Ep. to his Church of Carthage, that the Clergy were said to be Honoured, according to the proportion they had of the Publick Offerings where speaking of Aurelius and Cellerinus, two Confessors, he writes, Presbyterii honorem designasse nos illis jam sciatis, & sportulis iisdem cum Presbyteris honorentur, & divisiones mensurnas aequatis quantitatibus partiuntur.
The Arch-Bishop being tired with the Service of the day, desired to be excused assisting at the Nercha; nevertheless he had his double Portion sent home. It was a great branch of Figs, and several Cakes made of Rice and Honey, with several other Dishes dressed a la Mode de Malabar.
In the Evening the Arch-Bishop went and visited all the Sick in the Town, and gave them both Money and Ghostly Counsel, the People imagining that this was the common Practice of all the Roman Prelates, began to cry them up to the Skies, as much more humble and charitable than the Chaldaean Bishop.
On Easter-Tuesday the Arch-Bishop went out to Nagpili, a Church about a quarter of a League from Carturte, where having Preached, he confirmed a great many, and reconciled several Caçanares to the Roman Church. By the way, it is something strange too, how the Arch-Bishop, tho’ he was able to School their Kings and Regedores, who all spoke Portugueze, should be so powerful a Preacher as the Portugueze make him to have been among the Malavars, considering that he neither knew a word of their Language, nor they of his.
Next day the Arch-Bishop set Sail for Molandurte, where, when he arrived, he found the People much changed from what they were, when he was there last, for they had shut the Church doors against him, neither did there so much as one single Person appear to receive him at the place where he was to Land, which was a quarter of a League from the Town.
The Arch-Bishop understanding how things were ashoar, did not offer to Land for fear of raising a Tumult, but wrote away immediately to the Governour of Cochim, to send the King of Cochim’s chief Regedor to him before Molandurte. The King, tho’ he did not love to hear of the Christians of St. Thomas, submitting themselves to the Arch-Bishop, being very sensible, if they were once brought under Portugueze Bishops, it would not be long before they would be entirely under the Crown of Portugal too, by which means he should lose 50000 of the best Soldiers in his Kingdom; yet at the same time he appeared very zealous to promote that work, having more than once Commanded all his Christian Subjects in all things to do what the Arch-Bishop would have them, and accordingly when the Governour sent him word that the Arch-Bishop desired to speak with the chief Regedor at Molandurte, he immediately ordered him to go and wait on him.
When the Regedor was come, the Arch-Bishop complained to him of the vexation his Master had given the Christians of Molandurte, for no other reason but for the kind reception they had given him when he was there last. The Regedor endeavoured to palliate the matter, and promised to acquaint his Master with what the Arch- Bishop had told him, Who, if any thing were amiss, he said, would be sure to redress it, and to give his Grace satisfaction. The arch-Bishop here took him up short, and told him, That he expected no kindness from his Master, since he had denied him so small a favour, as to order the Musquets that were lodged in the Quire of the Church, to be removed to a proper place, which, tho’ he had faithfully promised to do, yet he understood the Musquets were there still. The Regedor told him, The Regedor of the Place, and not his Master, was to blame for that, who, to his knowledge, was ordered to have done it.
Upon this the Arch-Bishop and Regedor went to Church together, where the Regedor, in his hearing, commanded all the Christians of the place, in the King’s Name, to do whatsoever the Arch- Bishop should command them. But, tho’ he is said, at the same time to have whispered some in the Ear, That the King would rather that they should adhere to their Arch-Deacon, and their old Customs, than submit to the Arch-Bishop, yet that did not appear in the sudden change that was wrought in their Carriage, by what the Regedor had told them publickly; for they who but the day before would not so much as endure to see the Arch-Bishop, were, without any other Argument, reconciled to the Church of Rome, and him the next day.
From Molandurte the Arch-Bishop went a second time to Diamper, where the chief Regedor, according to his promise, met him again. The Arch-Bishop complained to him of the Regedor of the place, who had not only hindred the Christians from coming at him, but encouraged several Heathens to deride and threaten him; as the chief Regedor was offering to excuse his Brother, the Arch-Bishop interrupted him, and striking the Cane he had in his hand three times against the Ground, bid him in a great fury not to offer to speak to him, for that he knew his Heart well enough, and that he bore an ill will to all Christians; but there’s another, said he, I blame more than you, and that’s your master, who, notwithstanding his being Brother in Arms to the King of Portugal, suffers me to be abused in his Country; but you may tell your Master from me, that the King of Portugal shall know how I have been used by him, and that it will not be long before he shall smart for it. The Regedor desiring to appease him, did assure his Grace, That his Master knew nothing of what had been done to him at Diamper; and that so soon as he was acquainted with it, he would be sure to make Examples of all those that had any way affronted his Grace. This put the Arch-Bishop in a greater Passion than he was in before; he said, This was all Trick, and that he had treated too often with Kings, and knew their Tempers too well to be made believe, that they would not see themselves obeyed when they had a mind to it.
The Regedor assured him a second time, that his Master always had, and always would favour his designs in the Serra, I shall quickly know that, said the Arch-Bishop, for if you be sincere, you will presently call all the Christians together, and Command them, in the King’s Name to acknowledge me as their Prelate, and to unite themselves to the Church of Rome. The Regedor promised to do it presently, and having called all the Christians together, commanded them before the Arch-Bishop on pain of the King’s high displeasure, to obey the Arch-Bishop in all things, assuring them withal, that this was His Majesty’s Will, and therefore they should give no credit to any that should whisper the contrary to them; and thus, by Hectoring and Bribing of Kings and their Regedores, the Arch-Bishop made both sudden and great Conversions.
to be continued............
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