history of the church of malabar
A TABLE OF THE
Principal Matters contained in the
H I S T O R Y
Church of Malabar
A Bd-Jesu or Hebed, who, p. 39. Sent by the Chaldaean Bishops with the submission of their whole Church to the Pope, the Council of Trent then sitting, ibid.
Abehi, a famous Amazon comes to Goa, her Character and Business, p. 43
Aleixo de Menezes, Archbishop of Goa, p. 43. desirous to reduce the Christians of St. Thomas to the Obedience of the Roman Church, and to that end treats with Jacob, Mar Simeon’s Vicar General, p. 43. Writes to Mar Abraham, &c. ibid. Makes the Arch-Deacon of the Serra, Vicar Apostolical of the said Diocess, in Conjunction with Francisco Roz and the Rector of the Jesuits College of Vaipicotta, against the Pope’s experss order, p. 43. Resolves to go in Person to the Serra, and why, p. 44, 45. Writes a Letter to the Arch-Deacon, p. 44. Blam’d for imploying the Jesuits, makes use of a Franciscan Friar to go to the Arch-Deacon, and why, p. 45. His Design upon Cunahle, p. 45. Complimented by the Magistrates of Cochin, p. 45. He recommends the Business of Cunahle to them, p.45. His behaviour to the King of Cochin, p. 45. Applies himself to the reduction of the Christians of St. Thomas, p. 45. Paniquais oppose him, p. 46. His reception, at Vaipicotta, p.46. His Sermon and Text, p. 46. Tells them the News of Purgatory, p. 46. Resolves to hinder the Malabar Christians to pray for the Patriarch of Babylon, p. 46. Excommunicates all that do, ibid. Causes the Arch-Deacon and Caçanares to sign the Excommunication, ibid. His obstinacy herein, p. 46. Confirms some Boys at Paru, p. 47. Goes to Mangate but stayed not, and why, p. 47. Denyed Entrance at Cheguree, ibid. Dehorted from his Enterprize, ibid. He discourses to the Chegureans of the Pope’s Supremacy, p. 48. Received friendly at Canhur, and why, p. 48. Sails to Porcha, and is kindly received, and why, ib. Complimented by the King of the Country, who desires to be admitted a Brother in Arms to the King of Portugal, p. 48. The Arch Bishop’s answer, ib. Breaks his Promise, ibid. Goes to Coulaon, and why, 48. Sends to the Captain General to come and demolish it, p. 48. A touch of his Treachery and Cunning, p. 48. His high Posts, p. 48. A Reflection upon him, p. 48. He disappoints the Queen of Changanate, ibid. Sails to Cochim, and why, ibid. Goes to Molandurte, p. 48. The King of Cochim jealous of him, ibid. The Arch-Bishop Excommunicates him, ibid. Sails for Diamper, p. 49. Designs to confer Orders, and when, ibid. Writes to the Arch-Deacon to assist at the Solemnity, with the Arch-Deacon’s Answer, ib. Ordains 37 at Diamper, p. 49. Goes to Carturte, and what happened in the way, p. 49. Gains Itimato Mapula and Itimane Mapula, two Brothers, to his side, ibid. His Answer to the Queen of Pimenta, p. 49. A pleasant Scuffle betwixt him and a Caçanar, p. 49,50. Resolves to depose the Arch-Deacon, but is perswaded to deferr it for Twenty Days, p. 50. Names Thomas Curia, a Kinsman of the Arch-Deacon’s, to his place, ibid. Makes another Ordination, p. 50. Intends a Solemn Procession, wherein a Sorcerer undertakes to kill him, but is prevented, p.50. Invited to the Nercha, p. 50. But desires to be excused, p. 50. They send him his Portion home, and what it was, ibid. Applauded for his Charity, ib. Confirms a great many at Nagpili, ibid. A Reflection, p. 50. Goes to Molandurte, and what happened there, p. 50. The difference between him and the king of Cochim touching the Christians of Molandurte, p.50. Returns to Diamper, p. 51. Is angry with the Chief Regidor, ibid, and 51. Preaches, Confirms, and acquaints them with his having excommunicated the Arch-Deacon, p. 51. Carturte, Molandurte, Diamper, and several other Villages brought under his Obedience, &c. p. 51. Writes a long Letter to the Arch Deacon, p. 51. Sails to Narame, and baulk’d in his design, how, p.51. Receives the Arch-Deacon’s Letter of Submission, p. 51. Orders him to Subscribe ten Articles, p. 51,52. Goes to Cochim, and why, p. 95, 97. Receives advice of the King of Cochim’s having begun a War with the Caimal, p. 52. Disswades him from it by threats, and what pass’d between them, p.52,53. Writes to the king of Mangate to force the Arch- Deacon to submit, p. 53. He submits, and is received, but desires to Sign the Articles privately, p. 53. Agreed to, ibid. The Arch-Bishop returns to Cranganor, p. 53. Composes the Decrees of the Synod, and engages the Princes to assist him thereat, ibid. His trick to secure the Major Vote in the Synod, ibid. and 54. Father Simon’s Reflection upon him, ibid. Comes to Diamper the 9th of June. and what he did, ibid.
Antonio Galvam, with the help of Francisco de Castro, said to convert five kings in the Island of Mazacar, p. 41. He first discovered the King of Portugal’s Title to the Clove, & c. ibid.
Arch Bishop : See Aleixo de Menezes.
Arch - Deacon of the Serra declines the signing Pope Pius IV’s profession of Faith, p. 43,44. which is dissembled by Dom Aleixo de Menezes, p. 44. Assembles a Synod at Angamale, and why , p. 44. Afraid of the Arch-Bishop’s coming into the Serra, p. 44. Subscribes the Creed of Pius IV. and why, p. 45. Meets the Arch-Bishop at Cochim, p. 46. Wherein he was to comply, p. 46. His Attendance, p. 46. The result of their Meeting, p. 46. Deferrs to meet the Arch-Bishop at Vaipicotta, and why, p. 46. His Speech to the Christians of St. Thomas, p. 46. Flings out of the Church of Paru in a Passion, and why, p. 47. Shut up in a House at Cheguree, denying to see the Archbishop, p. 47. The Arch-Bishop makes him fair Promises, p. 47. Whereupon he perswades the People and Caçanares to treat with the Arch- Bishop, ibid. His Discourse with the Arch-Bishop, and the Arch- Bishop’s Answer, p. 47,48. Pre-tending himself sick at Canhur, he returns to Cheguree, p. 48. Orders an Edict to be published, and why, p. 49. Pretends to submit and Sign Articles, p. 52. but makes delays, p.52. The King of Mangate against his submitting, ibid. The Arch-Deacon resolves to throw himself at the Arch Bishop’s Feet, but desires to wait upon him at some other place than Cranganor, p. 53. Meets him at Vaipicotta in the Jesuits College, and submits, p. 53.
Babylon anciently subject to the Patriarch of Antioch, p. 39. The Romish pretenses thereto contradicted, p.39. Of old the Metropolis of Assyria, p. 39
Bread and the cup deliver’d into the hands of priests to be ordain’d, not essential to orders, p. 42. Council of Florence in the same Error, ibid. Condemned by all, particularly by Cardinal Lugo, Becanus, and Morinus, p. 42. Fallibility of the Roman Church inferr’d from hence, p. 42
Caçanar, the Oldest warns the Arch-Bishop to leave Diamper, p.49.
Caçanares abjure the Patriarch of Babylon, and reconcile themselves to the Church of Rome, p. 50
Caimal of Angamale waits upon the Arch-Bishop, who presents him
Carturte, High Mass perform’d there with Musick, which put the Caçanares and people quite out of conceit with the Roman worship, p. 49.
Catalogue of the viceroys of the Indies, p. 54. And of the prelates, Bishops, and Arch-Bishops of Goa and Bishops of Cochim,
Cheguree, the Inhabitants thereof Article with the Arch-Bishop, p.48
Christians introduce the use of Artillery amongst the Malabars, p. 36
Christians of St. Thomas send their Sons to the College at Cranganor where they are instructed after the Roman Way, p.38. Proves ineffectual to the reducing of them, p.38. Enraged against the Latins, p.44. Two Jesuits narrowly escape being murdered by them, ibid. The best Fire-men in the Indies, p.47. Enrag’d at the Arch-Bishop’s Excommunication, p.46
Church of Mangate fill’d with Houshold Goods and Women, and why, p.47
Clement VIII, his Briefs against Mar-Abraham, p. 43.
Cochim, king thereof griev’d at Dom Aleixo’s design upon Cunahle, endeavours to disswade him from it by stratagem, p. 45. Without success, ibid. Whereupon he makes War upon the Caimal, and why, ibid.
Coulaon, a Fortress belonging to the portugueze, p.48.
Crusado Bull brought into the Indies by Francisco Faria a Dominican Friar, p. 43.
Cunahle a strong Fortress possess’d by Mahometan pyrates. p.45.
Dominicans build a Fortress at solor, and Garrison it, p.41.
Elias pretended patriarch of Babylon, his Disgrace, p.39. Sends his pretended Arch- Deacon to Rome with a Book and Letter, ibid. The contents of the letter, ibid. Cajols Pope Paul V. with a story of his own making, p. 39. Which is contradicted by the 33 Canon of the Council of Nice, p. 39.
Eugenius the IV. how he supported his reputation, p. 39
Fernando Vinagre, a Secular Priest, commands a Squadron, & c.p. 41.
St. Francis destroys a whole Fleet of Jores for the protugueze, the Manner how, p.43.
Francisco Roz, a Jesuite, made Bishop of the Serra in Room of Mar-Abraham deceas’d, p.43. his speech to the Arch- Bishop, p.50.
Gemulio, who, p. 41. his speech, ibid & seq.
George: See Arch-Deacon.
Gregory the XIII. Issues his Briefs against Mar-Abraham, 42. A Provincial Council call’d there upon at Goa, ibid.
The Hidalcaon’s Letter to the Portugueze Vice-roy p. 40,41
Jacob, Mar-Simeon’s Vicar General refuses to comply with Dom Aleixo de Menezes Arch-Bishop of Goa, p. 43.
Jesuits afraid of the Christians of St. Thomas, p. 44. their ill requital of Dom Aleixo de menezes, and wherein, p.44. Reflection on their insincerity. p. 44.
Malabar its beginning and Latitude, p. 36. the Divers Kingdoms thereof , ibid the Princes thereof Heathens, ibid.
A Malavar Christian Boy, beat by their priests for naming the pope in his prayers, p.44.
Manuel de Faria his Character of Arch- Bishop Menezes, p.48.
Mar Audixa, patriarch of Babylon, p.38.
Mar Abraham succeeds Mar Joseph as Bishop of the Serra, p. 39. Sent prisoner to Rome, but escapes, p. 39. Goes thither voluntarily, &c. His treatment at Venice, &c. p.40. Expects a quiet possession of his Bishoprick, p. 41. Tricks us’d by the Portugueze to detain him, ibid. Confin’d to a Convent, p. 41. Escapes to Malabar, and how, ibid. professes himself a Romanist still, p. 42. Repairs to the Council, and once more abjures, p. 42. Sends the Heretical Books of his Diocess to be burnt, &c. ibid. The Council ended, he returns to his bishoprick and recants, p.42. His letter to the Patriarch of Babylon, &c. 43. Receives Mar Simeon as his Coadjutor, p.43. Who opposes him, ibid. He openly owns the Chaldaean Faith, 43. Bed-rid, p. 43. Sends to Babylon for another Coadjutor, but hinder’d by the Diligence of the Arch-Bishop, ibid. His Death, p. 43.
Mar Joseph, Bishop of the Christians of St. Thomas, p.38. Taken Prisoner and sent to Portugal, &c. p.38. Finds favour with the Queen Regent, and is sent back, ibid. Promises to reduce his Diocess to the Roman Obedience, ibid. Returns to Goa, p. 39. Denies to preach the Roman Doctrines in his Bishoprick, ibid. and pretends revelation for it, ibid. For which the Arch-Bishop is angry with him, ibid. His Bishoprick divided, p. 39. Complains of Mar Abraham to the Portugueze, ibid. Professes the same Doctrines he abjured in Portugal, p. 40.
Mar Simeon, Patriarch of Babylon, p. 39.
Another Mar Simeon, Mar Abraham’s coadjutor, inveigled by the Franciscans to go to Rome for Orders, p. 43. Leaves one Jacob his Vicar-General in his Absence, ibid. Examined before the Inquisition, and declared by Pope Sixtus V. not to be in Orders, ibid. Put into the Hands of Dom Aleixo de Menezes Arch Bishop of Goa, ibid. Who confines him to a Franciscan Convent in Lisbon, ibid.
Dom Matthias Arch-Bishop of Goa calls a Provincial Council, p.43 and summons Mar Abraham to repair to it, ibid. Which he declines, and declares himself for the Chaldaean Faith, ibid.
Moses Bar Cepha, who, p. 39.
Nagg’s -Head Ordination touch’d on, p.40.
Narame all in Arms for the Arch Deacon, p. 51.
Nercha, what, p. 50.
Olla’s published for the calling a Synod the 20th of June at Diamper,
Oriental Prelates never applied themselves to the Pope, but for
Interest, p. 39.
Pate Marca, a Mahometan Pyrate, built Cunahle, p. 45.
Paul III’s pretence for translating the Council of Trent to Bolognia,
Paru and the Inhabitants thereof described, p. 46,47. They arm against the Arch Bishop, ibid. Their Church full of Armed Men, ibid. The Arch Bishop’s Sermon to ’em, p. 47. They are angry thereat, ibid. Perswaded by the Arch-Bishop grow worse, p. 47.
Pimenta, the Queen thereof orders the Arch-Bishop to leave her Kingdom within three days, upon pain of Death, p. 49.
Pius V. issues a Brief for the apprehending Mar. Joseph, p. 40.
Portugueze, a Character of their Zeal by a Minister of State, p. 37. Another, p. 37. Try by Violence to bring the Christians of St. Thomas under obedience of the Roman Church, p. 38. And in order thereto resolve to seize their Bishop and send him to Rome, ibid. Manuel de Faria’s observation of their Tyranny, p. 40. They so far provoke the infidels that they are like to lose all, p. 40. An Indian’s opinion of them, p.41. Driven out of the lsland Ito, ibid. A great Slaughter of them before cunahle, p. 48. A resolute and noble Saying of a Portugueze Captain, p. 49.
Romans drove from Charamet by the Chaldaeans, p. 39.
Serra, What, p. 36. Its inhabitants call’d Christians of St. Thomas, how long subject to the Patriarch of Babylon, ibid. When discover’d to the Europeans, and by whom, ibid. They put themselves under the protection of the King of Portugal. p. 36.
Socerer undertakes to kill the Arch-Bishop but is prevented, p. 50. His punishment, p. 50.
Synod open’d, p. 54.
St. Thomas his Cross and Reliques found at Meliapor, p. 37. The Legend thereof, ibid. and p. 37. Bones of three Indian Kings found in his Grave, p. 38. Also a Copper Plate with a Donation grav’d therein, containing an imprecation still used by the Kings of Spain, p. 38.
Tum Siud who, p. 38. Submits himself to the Pope, ibid. and receives the Patriarchal Pallium. ibid. Presents a Confession of Faith to the Pope, p. 39. Instead of returning to Babylon goes to Charamet, where the Mahometans put him to Death, and why, ibid.
Vaipicotta, a College built there by the Jesuites, and why, p. 38. In-effectual to the reducing the Christians of St. Thomas to their Religion, ibid.
Vasco De Gama goes to Cochim with a Fleet, p. 36. The Christians of St. Thomas crave his protection, ibid. Not in a condition to effect it, ibid.
Venetians, their Policy to secure their trade in the Indies. p. 37.
Viceroy approves of a peace, with the Samorim, p.49. A Catalogue of the Viceroys of the Indies, p. 54.
Vincent, a Franciscan Friar sent to Cranganor to reduce the Christians of St. Thomas to the Roman Church, p. 38. His labours strangely magnified, and why, p. 39. Builds a College at Cranganor, and why, ibid.
Uniare cherare though Christen’d, still professes himself a Heathen and why, p. 49.
War breaks out between the Kings of Mangate and Paru, p. 44.
Wine not us’d by the Malabars in the Ordination of Priests, p. 42. Deny’d the Laity in the Sacrament by the Romanists, p. 42.
T A B L E
D E C R E E S
Synod of Diamper.
of the Synod, Page 89, &c.
The Speech at the opening, p. 57.
Decree I. For the extirpation of several Errors, Heresies and Schisms out of the Church of Malabar, for Acknowledging the Pope as Supream, and for beginning the Synod in Order to a Reformation thereof, p. 57.
Dec. II. Excommunication to be ipso facto incurr’d by such as have been call’d to the Synod, and depart without the Metropolitan’s Leave: Also a Command to all to offer any thing tending to the Honour of God, and the Reformation of the Church of Malabar,
Dec. III. All differences about Preheminence in the Church, to be decided by the Metropolitan, p. 57.
Dec. IV. confession, Mass, and the Sacrament to be celebrated for the Success of the Synod, in what manner. p. 57.
Dec. V. Junto’s prohibited during the Session. p. 58.
The Metropolitan’s speech, p. 58.
Dec. II. That the Synod make profession of Faith according to the Council of Trent, and take an, Oath to follow it in all things, p. 58.
The Profession and Oath of the Faith, p. 58.
Dec. III. All Priests, Deacons, and Sub-Deacons of the Bishoprick to take the same Oath, and that none be admitted to holy Orders without it, p. 59.
Dec. I. Errors in Faith Condemned, and a Rule for rectifying thereof, laid down in XIV. Chapters, p. 59.
Dec. II. Faults and Defects in the Syriack Translation of the new Testament, condemn’d, and ordered to be restored, p. 61.
Dec. III. To the same purpose, p. 61.
Dec. IV. Condemns three Heathenish Errors frequent among the Christians of Malabar, viz. Transmigration, Fate, and, That every Man may be saved by his own Laws, all which are good and lead to Heaven, p. 62.
Dec. V. Condemns this Heresy, namely, That it is a grievous sin so much as to speak or think of the Passion of Christ, &c. p. 62.
Dec. VI. Condemns the Errors of the Nestorians against our Lady,
Dec. VII. That the Law of St. Thomas is one, and that of St. Peter another, Condemn’d, p. 62.
Dec. VIII. Orders Excommunication of any one that shall name the Patriarch of Babylon Universal Pastor or Head of the Catholick Church, or any other, except only the Pope of Rome, p. 63.
Dec. IX. All Days set apart for the commemoration of Nestorius, or any of his followers, prohibited, and Roman Saints order’d to be commemorated in lieu thereof, p. 63.
Dec. X. The Church of Angamale new Christen’d and dedicated to St. Hormisda the Martyr; it having before been dedicated to St. Hormusio the Nestorian Heretick, p. 63.
Dec. XI. The Apostles creed restored as in the Roman Church p. 64
Dec. XII. Christian children permitted to be taught Reading and Writing by Infidel schoolmasters with some Limitations, p. 64
Dec. XIII. Christian Schoolmasters prohibited the Setting up of Pagods in their Schools, p. 64.
Dec. XIV. Prohibits all Christians to keep, translate, read, or hear read to others, any Heretical Books, whereof a great many are mentioned, p. 64.
Dec. XV. Errors and heresies in the Common-Prayer and Breviaries ordered to be corrected and purged, p. 66.
Dec. XVI. All Persons commanded to deliver their Syrian Books to the Metropolitan and Francisco Roz, to be Corrected, &c. p. 66.
Dec. XVII. None but such priests as are Licens’d and conform to the Doctrine of the Trent council, suffer’d to preach, p.67.
Dec. XVIII. All priests that have delivered any Errors or fabulous stories in their sermons are ordered to recant them publickly upon pain of excommunication, p.67.
Dec. XIX. Makes Void all Oaths against yielding obedience to the Roman Church under pain of the greater Excommunication, p. 67
Dec. XX. Contains the Profession of the Synod, p. 67
Dec. XXI. The synod resolves to be governed in all things by the last Trent Council, p. 67
Dec. XXII. Submits to the inquisition, p. 67
Dec. XXIII. All persons who shall Act , speak, or write against the Holy Catholick Faith, to be prosecuted and punish’d by the prelate, p. 68
Of the sacraments of Baptism and confirmation, p.68.
Of the Doctrine of the Holy Sacrament of Baptism, p. 68.
Dec. I. New form for Baptism, and the old ones abrogated, p. 68
Dec. II. All Baptized according to the old Forms to submit themselves to the Metropolitan at his visitation for his Directions, p. 69
Dec. III. Orders all Priests to make enquiry who have not been Baptized through any Default, and to baptize all such privately, without taking any Fees, p. 69
Dec. IV. To the same purpose p. 69
Dec. V. Children to be Christened on the 8th. Day, with some limitations, p. 69.
Dec. VI. The Error Condemn’d of not Baptizing the infants of Excommunicate parents, p.69
Dec. VII. Exhortation to all Parents, and such as are present at Womens labours, not to suffer an Infant to die without Baptism. Allowance to any Man, Woman, or Child, that knows the Form, to Baptize such in case of eminent Necessity. How the Child is to be order’d if it recover, p. 69.
Dec. VIII. Christian Daia’s or Midwives recommended, and Vicars exhorted to instruct them in the Form of Baptism, p. 69.
Dec. IX. Infidel Slaves ordered to be Baptized, p. 70
Dec. X. Christians not to be sold to Infidels for Slaves, p. 70
Dec. XI. Forbids Auguries, p. 70
Dec. XII. Foundlings how to be ordered, p. 70
Dec. XIII. Converts how to be order’d, p. 70
Dec. XIV. Holy Oils commanded, with the manner of using them,
Dec. XV. Commands the use of God-Fathers and God-Mothers in Baptism, not used before, p. 70
Dec. XVI. Prohibits Old Testatament (some few excepted) and Heathenish Names to be given to Children, ordering those of the New according to the Christian Oeconomy, p. 71.
Dec. XVII. Orders Children to be called by no other Names than those they were Christened by, p. 71
Dec. XVIII. Commands that Children be Christened in order as they are brought to Church, without any distinction of Persons, p. 71
Dec. XIX. Commands the building of Fonts. p. 71
Dec. XX. Register - Books to be used in all Churches, and their Use,
The Doctrine of the Sacrament of Confirmation, p. 71
Dec. I. The Sacrament of Confirmation commanded to be used, p. 72
Dec. II. Denounces Excommunication against all those that speak against it or vilify it, p. 72.
Dec. III. God-Fathers and God-Mothers of what Age, to be used in Confirmation or Chrism as well as Baptism, p. 72.
The Doctrine of the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist, p. 72
Dec. I. The Holy Eucharist when to be Celebrated, p. 73.
Dec. II. All Christians above the Age of 14 commanded to receive this Sacrament once a Year. at least, p. 73.
Dec. III. None to Receive before Confession to a Lawful Priest, p. 73.
Dec. IV. Commands to Receive Fasting with some Limitation, p. 73.
Dec. V. The Sacrament to be received as a Viaticum in danger of Death. The Vicar that suffers any to die without it, though his Fault, to be suspended for six Months, p. 73
Dec. VI. Women with Child to Confess and Receive a little before their time, p. 73
Dec. VII. Priests to Communicate once a Month at least in their surplice and Stole, p. 74
Dec. VIII. Priests not to Receive the Sacrament before Confession, nor say Mass having any scruple of Mortal Sin, p. 74
Dec. IX. Deacons and Subdeacons when to Receive the Sacrament,
The Doctrine of the Holy Sacrifice of the mass. p. 74
Dec I. Directions for saying Mass, and many things in the Chaldaean Missals to be rectified, p. 74
Dec. II. The Missals of Nestorius, Theodorus, and Diodorus to be burnt, p. 76
Dec. III. A grand Error of the Nestorians condemn’d, p. 76
Dec. IV. The Roman Mass to be translated into Syrian, and used on particular Occasions, &c. p. 77
Dec. V. Who to handle the Holy Vessels, p. 77
Dec. VI. Permits the Stole to none but Deacons, p. 77.
Dec. VII. Orders Stamps to be made in all Churches for the Host,
Dec. VIII. Orders what Wine is to be used in celebrating the Eucharist, p. 77
Dec. IX. The King of Portugal to send a Pipe and an half, or two Pipes of Muscatel Wine for the Use of the Sacrament, and how to be used, p. 77
Dec. X. Stones of the Altar to be consecrated by the Metropolitan,
Dec. XI. Holy Vestments to be provided by the Metropolitan out of the Alms of the Parish, p. 77
Dec. XII. All Persons, not having lawful impediment, commanded to hear a whole Mass every Sunday and Holyday, if, &c. p. 77
Dec. XIII. Directs how often to hear Mass, to be capable of the Blessing, and such as hear it not so often as directed, to be Excommunicate, p. 78
Dec. XIV. Prohibits Heathen Musicians to remain in the Church after Creed or Sermon is ended, p. 78
Dec. XV. Exhorts all to procure Masses to be said for the Souls of their deceased Friends, p. 78.
of the Holy Sacrament of Penance and Extream Unction, p. 78
Dec. I. Non-Confession declared a Mortal Sin, p. 79
Dec II. All Persons to come to Confession from Eight Years old and upwards, p. 79
Dec. III. All Masters of Families admonished to cause all in their Families to Confess, p. 79
Dec. IV. Confession injoin’d upon probable Danger of Death, or any great Sickness, p. 79
Dec. V. Obliges Women with Child to Confess, p. 80
Dec. VI. Orders how those are to be confessed that have the Small-Pox, p. 80
Dec. VII. Exhorts to frequent Confession, p. 80
Dec. VIII. Who to take Confessions, p. 80
Dec. IX. Absolution upon Confession how to be Administred, and by whom, p. 80
Dec. X. Directs in what Cases confessors may absolve Penitents,
Dec. XI. Excommunication and Absolution when proper, p. 80
Dec. XII. Priests Confessors to have a written Licence from the Prelate, p. 81
Dec. XIII. Confessors that understand the Malabar Tongue, to be made use of, and why, p. 81
Dec. XIV. None can absolve in the Sacramental Court but such as took the Confession, p. 81
Dec. XV. The Sacramental Form of Absolution, not to be used as a Prayer, but in its proper Place, p. 81
The Doctrine of the Sacrament of Extream Unction, p. 81
Dec. I. The use of the Extream Unction recommended, with directions therein, p. 81
Dec. II. Confessors to Instruct Sick Persons in the use of Extream Unction, p. 82
Dec. III. The Manner in which the Extream Unction is to be administred, p. 82
Of the Sacraments of Order and Matrimony, p. 82
Of the Doctrine of the Sacrament of Order, p. 82
Dec. I. Ordains who are fit for Orders, p. 82
Dec. II. Such as have been Simonaically ordained, dispensed with,
Dec. III. None to celebrate that have the Leprosie, p. 83
Dec. IV. Such as live in Malice not capable of the Casture, or Blessing, &c. p. 83
Dec. V. Directions for saying the Divine Offices; declared a Mortal Sin not to recite the whole, p. 83
Dec. VI. Commands the Athanasian Creed to be translated into Syrian, and the Clergy to get it by heart, p. 83
Dec. VII. Exhorts Clergymen not to be absent at Divine Service, with directions for their Behaviour thereat, &c. p. 83
Dec. VIII. Clergymen to be deducted in their part of the Dividend for every time of absence, except in case of lawful Impediment, p. 83
Dec. IX. Commands that no Exorcisms be used save those of the Church of Rome, p. 83
Dec. X. Forbids under pain of the Greater Excommunication all Superstitious, Heathenish Customs of foretelling lucky and unlucky Days for Marriage, &c. p. 84
Dec. XI. Priests not to Eat or Drink with Infidels, or in a Tavern or Publick Eating House upon pain of Suspension, and why, p. 84
Dec. XII. Commands the Clergy to wear a distinct Habit from the Laity, with other directions for their Behaviour, p. 84
Dec. XIII. Clergy not to meddle in Secular Affairs, p. 84
Dec. XIV. Commands all the Clergy to wear the Habit, Tonsure, and Shaven Crown, p. 84
Dec. XV. No Ecclesiastick to receive pay from any King as a Soldier,
Dec. XVI. No Clerk in Orders to Marry upon pain of Excommunication, p. 84
Dec. XVII. Suffers such as have been married, and turn away their Wives, to exercise their function, p.85
Dec. XVIII. Wives of Priests called Catatiara’s, to be degraded from their Honour in the Church, and benefit in the Profits, unless they leave their Husbands, p. 85
Dec. XIX. Declares how far this Synod is to be guided by the Trent Council, p. 85
Dec. XX. Forbids Simony, p. 85
Dec. XXI. Provides Means for the preventing of Simony, p. 85
Dec. XXII. Provides further for the prevention of Simony, p. 86
Dec. XXIII. None to be put in Orders during the Vacancy of the See, and why, p. 86
The Doctrine of the Sacrament of Matrimony, p. 86
Dec. I. Marriage to be celebrated according to the directions of the Council of Trent, p. 86
Dec. II. None to be Married without present Consent, together with the Marriage Form, and the manner of Consenting, p. 87
Dec. III. Banns to be published according to the Council of Trent, how, p. 87
Dec. IV. Orders a Register for Marriages, as also a Method for registring them, p. 87
Dec. V. Marriages to be celebrabrated in the Church, and the Parties to be Married to Confess, and receive the Eucharist before they can be Married, p.87
Dec. VI. Degrees of Kindred where Marriage is prohibited, p. 87
Dec. VII. Spiritual Kindred prohibited, what, p. 88
Dec. VIII. The Metropolitan to dispence with such Marriages both past, present, and to come, &c. p. 88
Dec. IX. Unlicensed times for Marrying, which, p. 88
Dec. X. Ordains what Age Parties to be Married shall be of, p. 88
Dec. XI. Separations in this Matter forbid, p. 88
Dec. XII. Declares all Marriages void that are not performed according to the Form of the Council of Trent, p. 88
Dec. XIII. Forbids Polygamy, p. p. 88
Dec. XIV. Consulting of Wizzards, and using Heathenish, Superstitious Ceremonies for success in Marriage prohibited, p. p. 88
Dec. XV. Against Heathenish Ceremonies in Marriage Contracts,
Dec. XVI. Against a Judaical Ceremony used by Married People,
Of the Reformation of Church - Affairs, p. 89
Dec. I. For dividing the Diocess into Parishes, and appointing Ministers, &c. p. 89
Dec. II. Division and Uniting of Parishes belongs to the Prelate, &c.
Dec. III. Pluralities condemned, p. 89
Dec. IV. No Parochial Church to be without a Curate, p. 89
Dec. V. The disuse of Christianity ordered to be enquired into, p. 90
Dec. VI. Orders the Church of Travancor to be rebuilt, and a Vicar Collated to the place, p. 90
Dec. VII. Orders Preachers to be sent to Tadamalla, and why, p. 90
Dec. VIII. Three Vessels of Oil to be kept in the Church, p. 90
Dec. IX. Holy Days or Feasts of the Church, on what days to be kept,
Dec. X. Fasts, upon what days to be kept, p. 91
Dec. XI. The Malavar Christians custom of Keeping Lent approved of, p.91
Dec. XII. How far Fasting obligatory, p. 91
Dec. XIII. Some Heathenish Washings condemned, p. 91
Dec. XIV. The Use of Consecrated Ashes, p. 91
Dec. XV. No Flesh to be Eat upon Saturdays, but in some cases permitted on Wednesdays, p. 92
Dec. XVI. The Obligation of not eating Flesh lasts from Midnight to Midnight, &c. p. 92
Dec. XVII. Water to be blessed by throwing holy Salt into it; how to be used, p. 92
Dec. XVIII. Boys and Girls to be instructed in the Doctrines of the Church of Rome, p. 92
Dec. XIX. Directions for saying the Ave mary, p. 92
Dec. XX. Commands Bowing at at the Name of Jesus, p. 92
Dec. XXI. Mattins and Processions order’d on Christmas Eve, p. 92
Dec. XXII. Surplice and Stole ordered to be used in the Administration of Sacraments, p. 93
Dec. XXIII. Candles to be blessed, when, p. 93
Dec. XXIV. Commanding an Universal Cessation from Work on the Sabbath Day, p. 93
Dec. XXV. Churches formerly dedicated to Marxobro and Marphrod to be dedicated to All Saints, &c. p. 93
Dec. XXVI. The Poors Box to be kept in the Overseers House, and why, and how, p. 93
Dec. XXVII. Capiars appointed to keep the Churches clean, p. 93
Dec. XXVIII. Cupboards and Chests ordered to be kept in the Vestries, and why, p. 94
Dec. XXIX. Images to be set up in Churches, p. 94
Dec. XXX. Churches to be re-consecrated, for what, p. 94
Dec. XXXI. Sick Persons prohibited to lie in the Church, p. 94
Dec. XXXII. All dead corps to be buried in Holy Ground, and by a Priest, p. 94
Dec. XXXIII. Orders for the Burying such as die of the Small-pox,
Dec. XXXIV. No Church to change the Name by which it was consecrated, p. 94
Dec. XXXV. Gentle Methods recommended for the reducing of Infidels to the Church, p. 94
Dec. XXXVI. Orders all Poor people that desire to turn Christians to be received to Baptism, p. 96
Dec. XXXVII. Commands that all be taught to Cross themselves from the Left to the Right, p. 96
Dec. XXXVIII. Execution of Wills declared to belong to the Bishops, p. 96
Dec. XXXIX. The Office of Burial to be performed for all, except such as die under Excommunication or utter Impenitence, p. 96
Dec. XL. Grants Licence to the Jesuits of the College of Vaipicotta, and why, p. 96
Dec. XLI. The Christians of St. Thomas to be obliged by the Constitutions of the Bishoprick of Goa, p. 95
Of the Reformation of Manners, p. 95
Dec. I. Orders the Extirpation of Superstitious and Heathenish Customs, p. 95
Dec. II. Declares what is Superstition, and what not, p. 96
Dec. III. Forbids Heathenish Purifications, p. 96
Dec. IV. Forbids Christians to frequent Heathen Festivities, p. 96
Dec. V. Contains some farther directions for Christians, p. 96
Dec. VI. Prohibits the consulting of Witches and Fortune-Tellers,
Dec. VII. No Christians to practise Witchcraft or Conjuring, p. 96
Dec.VIII. Against Diabolical Charms, p. 97
Dec. IX. Declares what Interest is lawful, p. 97
Dec. X. More against Extortion, p. 97
Dec. XI. Forbids Concubinage, p. 97
Dec. XII. Contains an Admonition to Masters and Fathers of Families, p. 97
Dec. XIII. Prohibits Christians the Buying and Selling Children or kindred, p.97
Dec. XIV. Approves of giving the Tenth part of their Wives Portion to the Church, &c. p. 97
Dec. XV. Commands differences among Christians to be decided by the Prelate, p. 97
Dec. XVI. Christians forbid to make use of Ordeals for tryal of their Innocence, p. 98
Dec. XVII. Christians commanded to distinguish themselves from the Heathens, how, p. 98
Dec. XVIII. Prohibits Christians to drink or sell Orraca, p. 98
Dec. XIX. A certain Weight for Merchandize commanded, p. 98
Dec. XX. Females to inherit in default of Issue Male, p. 98
Dec. XXI. Adoption of Sons not lawful, except, &c. p. 98
Dec. XXII. Forbids the Prelate to certifie the Adoption of Children, where the Adopter has any of his own, p. 99
Dec. XXIII. Christians desired to cohabit in Villages, and why, p. 99
Dec. XXIV. Desires the King of Portugal to take all the Christians of Malabar under his Protection, p. 99
Dec. XXV. Orders all Vicars to have a Copy of the Decrees of the Synod, and why. The Conclusion, being a Recapitulation as it were of the whole Synod, made by the Metropolitan to the Clergy and People; with some other Remarkables, p. 99
Dom Andre Bishop of Cochim’s Letter to the Synod, p. 102
The Synod’s Answer, p. 103
A Preface to a Missal, p. 103
Church of Malabar:
From the time of its being first Discovered by the Portuguezes, in the year 1501. until the Celebration of the following Synod in the year 1599.
THE Country of Malabar begins at Cananor, a Town in the Northern Latitude of 11 degrees and 20 minutes, and ends at Cape Comorim, in the Northern Latitude of 7 degrees and 2/3 ds.
It contains divers Kingdoms, as Cochim, Travancor, Gundaca, Pimenta, Margate, &c. and abounds with Ports, as Calecut, Cale, Cochim, Coulam, &c. Most of its Princes and Nations are Heathens, and extreamly superstitious in the Worship of Pagods, of which there are several among them of incredible Riches.
The Serra or Gate, as the Natives call it, is a Ridge of Mountains running 200 Leagues from North to South, the South end whereof is inhabited by Christians, who call themselves the Christians of St. Thomas, upon the account of their having first been converted to the Christian Faith by the Apostle of that Name. They have always, or at least for 1300 years, been under the Patriarch of Babylon, who, as their Meterane or Arch-Bishop died, took care to send them another, who resided still among them, and was had in great Reverence both by Christians and Infidels. As for the Doctrines and Customs of this church, I shall referr the Reader to the Accounts he will meet with of them in the following History.
The first news of this ancient, but remote Church, was brought to Europe by Pedralvares Cabral, who putting into Cranganor in the year 1501. and meeting there with several of those Christians, he perswaded two of them, who were Brothers, to come along with him to Portugal, where the eldest, whose Name was Matthias, died at Lisbon; and the other, whose name was Joseph, went first to Rome, and from thence to Venice, where, upon his information, a Tract was publish’d in Latin of the State of the Church of Malabar, and is printed at the end of Fasciculus Temporum.
The year following the Christians of St. Thomas hearing of Don Vasco da Gama, being at Cochim, with a considerable Fleet of ships, sent some of their Body to let him know, that understanding that he was a subject of a Christian king, they beg’d the favour of him to take them under his Masters Protection, that so they might be defended against the Oppressions and Injuries which were done them daily by Infidel Princes, and for a lasting Testimony of their having put themselves under the King of Portugal, they sent his Majesty a Rod tipp’d at both ends with silver, with three little Bells at the head of it, which had been the Sceptre of their Christian kings, for such they are reported to have had formerly, tho’ upon no very good grounds, so far as I can perceive.
The admiral Vasco da Gama, not being in a condition at that time, to do any more for them, gave them a great many good words, promising them, in his Masters name, the favour and protection they had desired, and which he was sensible they stood in great need of.
In the year 1505 two Christians, who were famous for their great skill in casting great Guns, and whom, for that reason, Don Vasco da Gama had taken along with him to the Indies, ran over to the Samorim, and were the first that introduc’d the use of Artillery among the Malabars: For the venetians foreseeing that their great Indian Trade would be utterly ruin’d, by the new Passage that was discover’d to the Indies by the cape of Good Hope, if the Portugueze shou’d once get any footing in those parts, are said to have sent those two Engineers, who were their natural born subjects, into the Portugueze service, on purpose to go over to the Indians, to teach them, the use of Great Guns, and other Fire-arms, that they might be the better able to oppose the Portuguezes.
But after this forementioned Complement of the admiral, we hear no more of these Christians, till about the Year 1545, the Portuguezes being all that while too busie in making new Conquests, and the Friars, who were sent thither, too much employed in building and providing commodious seats for their Convents, to attend to any foreign Business, of what nature soever.
This 40 Years neglect of a Christianity, which was just under their Noses, puts me in mind of what a Minister of State said of the Portugueze Zeal in the Indies.
" Vana es Senor
"(Speaking to Philip
"IV.) la Opinion que
"entre Nationes tudas
"tienen Portuguezes de
"Religiosos por las con-
"Aquilas conquistas las
"Emprendio la codi-
"cia, no la Religion,
"las conversiones se
"Hizieron por obra
"divina y charidad de
"personas religiosas par-
"ticulares, el commun
"y direction de la co-
"rona attendio a de-
"predar Reynos y Ci-
"dades, alli avia mas
"nes a donde avia
"mas que hartar la co-
"dicia, y alla eran
"donde no avia que
"robar, concluding: y
"cessa Religion quan-
"do no se sique la co-
"dicia, y que no en-
"tran en el cielo to-
"dos los, que dizen se-
"nor abrid nos.
It is a vain conceit, if
it please your Majesty,
(Speaking to Philip IV.)
that the world has enter-
tain’d of the Zeal of the
Portuguezes upon account
of the Conversions that have
been made by them in the
Indies, for it was cove-
tousness and not Zeal that
engaged them to make all
those Conquests. The con
versions that have been
made there were perform-
ed by the divine power,
and the Charity of a few
particular Friars, the Go-
vernment and Crown ha-
ving no other aim therein,
but the robbing of King-
doms and Cities; and
there were still the great-
est Conversions where there
was most to gratify their
Covetousness. But where
there was nothing to be
had, there the People were
Obdurate, and not to be
wrought upon. And so we
see their Zeal expired
quickly in all places, where
it was not animated by
Covetousness, and how
they who had nothing else
to say but, Lord open un-
to us, were not thought
fit to enter into Heaven.
Manuel de Faria also in the Third Tome of his Asia Portuguesa, after having reckoned up the Errors (as he calls them) of the Christians of St. Thomas, makes the following Reflection upon his Countrymen’s having been so long in reducing them to the Roman Church.
"Gran lastima es oir
"que uviesse esto in
"frente de los Portu-
"gueses en la India a
"los cien annos de su
"assistancia en ella; y
"lo que es mas a los
"mesinos oios de pre-
"lados en Goa. La
"verdad es que destos
"eran los Mercadores
"que Christo hallo en
"el Templo y echo del
It is a shameful thing (saith he) that this Church should continue an Hundred years in the Neighbourhood of the Portuguezes without being reduced to the Roman Faith, and which makes it still the worse, under the Eye of the Bishops of Goa; but the truth is, those Merchants whom Christ whipp’d out of the Temple, were such as these.
Tho’ after all, the Portuguezes Negligence in this matter was nothing so scandalous as the Violences they afterwards made use of in the reducing of them.
In the Year 1544. the Cross and other Reliques of St. Thomas, which have since made such a Noise in the World, were found at Meliapor, the Legend whereof in short is, That the Portuguezes as they were pulling down an old Chappel in order to rebuild it, met with a vast Stone some Foot underground, which having lifted up with great ease, they found all the Earth under it stain’d deep with Blood, that appear’d very fresh, and thereon a Cross excellently well cut, after the fashion of that of the Military Order of Aviz in Portugal, and over it a Dove or Peacock (for the learned are not agreed which ’twas) and above that a bloody Dagger. There was also an Inscription on the Stone, but in Letters that no Body knew what to make of. There was a Cross of the same Saint, and found much after the same manner by the Portuguezes in Meliapor in the year 1522. with this Inscription: at the time when Thomas founded this Temple, the King of Meliapor made him a Grant of the Customs of all the Merchandizes that were brought into that Port, which Duty was the Tenth part of the Goods. With this Cross were also found the Bones of St. Thomas, which were reckoned by all the World before to have been lodged at Edessa. There was also found an ancient Record of St. Thomas’s having converted the King of Meliapor (who it’s like was the Prince that gave him the forementioned Grant) by drawing a great piece of Timber ashore, which the King and St. Thomas both pretended a right to, after all the King’s Elephants, and all the Wit of Man were not able so much as to wag it. A Prophecy of St. Thomas was also found in the same Treasure, declaring that whenever the Sea shou’d come up to Meliapor, which was then Twelve Leagues from it, a Nation shou’d come from the West, which shou’d preach the very same Faith that he had preached.
And to put all this Indian Treasure together, for it is pity any of it should be lost, the Bones of the Three Kings were found in the same Grave with those of the Apostle, which were known to be theirs, by an ancient MS. which gave the following account of them. The King of Nubia and Arabia was Melchior, Baltasar was King of Goli and Saba, Gaspar was King of Tursi, Insula, and Grisola or Malabar, where the Body of St. Thomas lieth, by whom they were all three consecrated Bishops, and were afterwards martyr’d with him. I leave the examination of the truth of this MS. to the City of Cologne, whose concern it is.
Among other things there was a Copper plate found, with the following Donation engraved upon it: This is the Testimony of Alms, by which Paradise is acquired, and which all the following Kings, who shall distribute the said Alms, shall certainly obtain : whereas they that shall refuse to give them, shall be Six Thousand years with Worms in Hell. This Imprecation is literally used by the ancient Kings of Spain in most of their charitable Donations; but whether the Spanish Kings had it from the Indian, or the Indian from the Spaniard, is not certainly known.
In the Year 1645. Dom Joan Dalbuquerque the first Arch-Bishop of Goa, being ashamed, it’s like, of their talking so much in Europe, and doing so little in India in the matters of Religion, sends one Vincent, a Franciscan Friar, of which Order the Arch- Bishop himself was, to Cranganor, to try what he could do towards the reducing of those Christians to the obedience of the Roman Church. The Labours of this single Friar are so strangely magnified by the Portuguezes, that it looks as if it were done on purpose to excuse their not employing of more Hands in a Work, which here in Europe they pretended was their chief Business in the Indies. For he is said not only to have preached daily in their Churches, which were built after the fashion of the Pagod Temples, but also to have built several Churches among them after the Latin way; and at last, by the order of the Vice-Roy and Archbishop, upon his having inform’d them of the small success that his preaching had had among them, to have erected a College at Cranganor in the Year 1546. in order to the instructing of their Sons in the Learning and Usages of the Latin Church.
By the way, it is somewhat strange how Friar Vincent, who is not said to have had the gift of Tongues, no more than the Jesuite Xavier, who himself complained, That for want of it he was forc’d to prattle more like a Child, than preach like an Apostle among the Infidels, shou’d commence so powerful a Preacher among the Malabars, the very first Year of his being in the Indies; a Year being a very short time for a Man to make himself so far Master of a strange Language, as to be able to Preach therein to any purpose.
But tho’ the Christians of St. Thomas did not deny to send their Sons to this College, several of whom, after their having been taught Latin, were Ordained Priests, according to the Roman Rites: Yet this had little or no effect as to the reducing of that Church to the Papal Obedience, to which they still continued so averse, that they treated those Natives with the same disregard that they did the other Latin Priests.
Thus matters continued with the Church of Malabar till the Year 1587. when the Jesuits imagining the reason why this Christianity was so little benefitted by having several of their Sons bred in the College at Cranganor, was their not being taught Chaldee or Syriack, which is the Language all their Offices are in, did thereupon erect a new College, which was built at the sole charge of Antonio Guedes Morales, at a place called Chanota, or Vaipicotta, a Village inhabited by those Christians, and which is about a League from Cranganor.
But notwithstanding the Jesuits, by educating several of the Malabars in the Chaldee Tongue, and instructing them thorowly in the Latin Faith, did qualify them to serve the Roman Church in her Pretensions. Yet all this signified very little, none that had been educated by them daring so much as to mutter the least Word against any of their ancient Doctrines, or in favour of the Roman, or to alter any thing in their Offices, or forbear praying for the Bishop of Babylon as their Patriarch, in the Mass.
Wherefore the Portuguezes finding that these Christians were not by any thing that Friars could say or do to them, to be perswaded out of their ancient Faith, or to forsake their present Bishop to submit themselves to the Pope, against whom they were so possessed, that they cou’d not endure so much as to hear him named, resolved, at last, to try other methods with them, that is, to try what Violence would do, the Method to which Popery, where- ever it is, owes both its Propagation and Establishment.
And that they did not betake themselves to this course sooner, we are not to imagine was in the least owing to their temper, or to any disposition that was in them, to try first what fair and gentle means would do; for they must know nothing of the spirit of popery, that can imagine it to be capable of any such thing, but it was owing purely to the circumstances of their Affairs; for that before their Government had spread it self, and taken a good root in those parts, it would not have been safe for them to have made use of those rude and boisterous Methods for the reduction of these Christians, which we shall see they did afterwards, when they had in a manner gotten that whole Countrey into their own power: in pursuance of the forementioned Resolution, the Portuguezes determined to have their Bishop, to whose presence among them they attributed their constancy in their ancient Faith, seized in order to send him to Rome, which was executed accordingly.
Their Bishop at that time (for they had but one of that Order among them) was one Mar Joseph, who, according to ancient Custom, had been sent thither by Mar Audixa, Patriarch of Babylon. He is acknowledged by the Portuguezes to have reformed divers Abuses in that Church, and to have put things in a much better order than he found them in. Mar Joseph being brought Prisoner from Cochin to Goa, was Embarked upon the first ships that went to Portugal, with an intent of sending him to Rome; but being arrived at Lisbon, he, by his Address and appearances of an extraordinary Sanctity, did so far insinuate himself into the favour and good opinion of Dona Caterina, who was Queen Regent at that time, and of the Infanta Dona Maria, that he was sent back by the next Ships to Goa, with the Queen Regents Letters, ordering him to be permitted to live quietly in his Bishoprick, he having promised the Cardinal Infante Don Anrique, who was at that time Inquisitor - General, and the Pope’s Legate à latere to the Crown of Portugal, to do all that was in his power towards the reducing of his Diocess to the Roman obedience.
In the year 1552, one Tum Siud, or Simon Salacan, a Monk of the Order of St. Pachomius, who pretended to have been chose Patriarch of Mosul, or Seleucia Parthorum, or Babylon, for they are all the same, by the whole Clergy of Persia and Assyria, came to Rome and submitted himself to the pope; by whom, according to some, he was consecrated a Bishop, tho’ others will have it, that he had only his Eastern Consecration confirmed, and afterwards received the Patriarchal Pallium. He presented Letters and a Confession of Faith to the Pope, which he pretended were sent by all the Eastern Bishops: in the Letters the Pope’s Supremacy was exalted as high, as if they had been writ by a Parasite Canonist; which Letters, together with the Confession of Faith, were done into Latin and Printed by Masius: He gave out also, that he was attended by Seventy Persons of note as far as Jerusalem, and from thence only by Three, whereof one died by the way, and another remained sick in the Journey; and the third, whose name was Calafi, came with him to Rome. Tum Siud, after he was dismissed at Rome, instead of returning to Babylon, went and lived in an obscure place called Charamet or Amed, where in a short time he was put to death by the Mahometans; and, as it is said, at the instigation of the Christians of those Parts, who, to the great discredit of the pretensions he had made at Rome, would never own him nor his Authority. But this ill Success did not hinder another Monk of the same Order, whose name was Abd Jesu or Hebed, who had writ several Books in defence of Nestorianism, from coming to Rome with the same pretensions, in the Year 1562; and he could never have come in a better time, by reason of the Council of Trent being then sitting, to which he was sent with great Solemnity to represent nothing less than all the Chaldean Bishops, having before at Rome in their Name, made the submission of that whole Church to the Pope: This method of making a noise with Mock-Prelates, had been made great use of by some former Popes. So Eugenius the IV. maintained his tottering reputation against the Council of Basil, by an appearance of Graecians and Armenians in the Council of Florence: and Paul the III. graced his Translation of the Council from Trent to Bolognia, which was so stoutly opposed by the Emperor and Spanish Bishops, by sending one Stephen to Bolognia with the splendid Title of the Armenian Patriarch.
This Humor was carried on by one Elias, who likewise pretended to be chose Patriarch of Babylon; he sent several Nuncio’s to the Pope with the Submission of the Babylonish Church, and a Confession of Faith; but these Nuncio’s spoiled their business by over-acting their Parts; for it having been discovered, that the better to support their Pretence of the Chaldean Church agreeing with the Church of Rome in all things, they had tore several Pages out of their church-Offices, they were dismissed with disgrace.
However this did not discourage Elias (as indeed what will a hungry Monk?) from sending one Adam Camara, his pretended Arch - Deacon, to Rome, three Years after that misfortune; who, together with his Patriarch’s Letter, delivered to the Pope a Book of his own composing, concerning the Reconciliation of the Chaldaean Church to the Roman, which he desired might be diligently examined. In his Letter he told Paul V. That let Hereticks do what they will, he for his part was resolved never to go against the Holy Precepts of the Apostles and Orthodox Fathers, who had all affirmed the See of great Rome to be the Head of all other Sees, but would always confess that the Roman Church was the Mother of all the other Churches in the World, and that all that did not own her to be so, were accursed. It’s observable, that this Elias had a stretch of Courtship beyond his begging Predecessors; which was his assuring the Pope, That all their Clergy anciently had their Orders immediately from Rome, and that that Custom continued, till several that were going to Rome on that Errand were murdered by the way; which having several times happened, the Pope when he came to hear of it, did of his free Grace say, Let us ordain them a Patriarch; and not only so, but permit them to chuse him, that so they may not perish thus by the way: And thus, said good Elias, we received all the Authority we pretend to from Rome, and not from our selves, as they pretend to do; (and the greater Wretches they) who trample upon the Canons of the Apostles, and the Laws of the Fathers. It is from this blind Story that the Roman Doctors have endeavoured to persuade the World, that all the Babylonish Bishops do own, that they derived their Power of Ordination from the Western Fathers, meaning the Bishops of Rome, no doubt.
Now what crude Stuff is this, that those hungry Monks served up to the Pope, and was as greedily swallowed at Rome, there being not the least Colour of Truth in any part of the Story. For as to the ancient Custom that is so confidently affirmed, it is plainly contradicted by the 33d Arabick Canon of the Council of Nice, which tho’ not the genuine Canons of that Council, are yet very ancient. The Canon runs thus :
Canon 33. Let the See of Seleucia, which is one of the Eastern Cities, be honoured likewise, and have the Title of Catholicon, and let the Prelate thereof, ordain Arch-Bishops as the Other Patriarchs do, that so the Eastern Christians who live under Heathens, may not be wronged by waiting the Patriarch of Antioch’s leisure, or by going to him, but may have a way opened to them to supply their own Necessities; neither will any injury be done to the Patriarch of Antioch thereby, seeing he has consented to its being thus, upon the Synods having desired it of him.
From which Canon it is plain, That the Church of Seleucia or Babylon was anciently subject to the Patriarch of Antioch, who of all the Patriarchs was their nighest Neighbour. So that if the Chaldaean Bishops do own that they derived all their Authority from the Western Fathers, as is pretended they do, they must mean by the Western Fathers, the Bishops of Antioch.
And as to its being said, That the Chaldaean Bishops do to this day own that they had their Ordinations from the Western Fathers, meaning the Bishops of Rome, the falshood of that Pretence appears evidently, not only from what has been said, but from the whole Tenor of the following Synod, and of all the late Reports of the Portuguezes concerning that Church: As it does likewise, That all those Patriarchs of Babylon, who came to Rome, notwithstanding the great Noise they made in this Part of the World, were mere Impostors, never owned by the Churches they pretended to be Patriarchs of. Father Simon speaking of this in the 93 Page of his Histoire Critique, confesseth their magnifying the Pope’s Power as they did, to have been a piece of gross Flattery, but withal, will have it to have been Pardonable in such poor Wretches, who would not otherwise have been suffered to have approached the Pope, to whom they came into Europe on purpose to make their Court; for, as he observes upon the same occasion, few or none of the Oriental Prelates ever applied themselves to the Pope, but for the promoting of some particular Interest, which was one reason why the reunions they pretended to make did not last long. But tho’ for some time these mock Prelates being supported by the Pope, made a shift to keep the face of a Church at Charamet, none of them ever daring to go to Mosul, yet after a little time the true Chaldaean Prelates obliged them to leave Charamet; from whence they retired to Zeinalback, a yet remoter Place on the borders of Persia, where from little, in a short time, they dwindled to nothing.
The Prelates of Babylon we see were anciently stiled Bishops of Seleucia, a City not far from Ctesiphon; from whence it was that Simon, who suffered Martyrdom under Sapor is stiled Bishop of Seleucia and Ctesiphon, of which City we meet with this following Account in Strabo. Babylon was anciently the Metropolis of Assyria, which now Seleucia of Tigris is, near to which is a great Village called Ctesiphon, where the Kings of Parthia used to spend the Winter to spare Seleucia, that it might not be continually oppressed with Soldiers and Scythians: but notwithstanding this Change of the Metropolis, as the Country all about is still called Babylon, so the Natives, tho’ Born in the very City of Seleucia, are still called Babylonians from the Region, and not Seleucians.
In the Bibliotheca Patrum, there is a Treatise of Paradise translated out of Syriack into Latine, by Masius, writ by one Moses Bar Cepha, who is stiled Bishop in Bethraman and Bethleno, and curator of the Ecclesiastical Affairs of the Mozul or Seleucia Parthorum. This Moses flourished in the Tenth Century.
But it is time to leave these Sham Prelates, who run so fast to Rome of their own accord, and return to the true ones, who were forc’d to go thither much against their Wills.
After the Christians of the Serra had heard of their Arch-Bishop’s being sent a Prisoner to Portugal, despairing of ever seeing him again, they sent secretly to Mar Simeon, Patriarch of Babylon, desiring him to order them a new Arch-Bishop, who straightways sent them one Mar Abraham, who having gotten into the Serra in a disguise, notwithstanding the great care the Portuguezes had taken to have intercepted him, he was received by the whole Church as their Bishop, with great joy. But he had not been long there, before he had the news of Mar Joseph’s being returned to Goa, where having presented the Letters he had brought along with him, he was permitted to go back to his Bishoprick.
The Arch-Bishop of Goa who had writ to Portugal, that they should by no means ever suffer Mar Joseph to return to the Indies, was not without strong jealousies of his having prevaricated in all that he had promised; and what did very much confirm him therein, was, that Mar Joseph when he desired him to take some Friars along with him to preach the Roman Doctrines in his Bishoprick, did not only deny to do it, but furthermore pretended, that it was reveal’d to him the Night before, that it was no ways convenient. The Arch-Bishop being netled at this pretence, told him with great heat, That he had better Revelation from the Scriptures of his not being the Pastor whom God would have to feed his Sheep, but a Wolf in Sheep’s cloathing, of whom our Saviour had said, That they were to be known by their Fruits, and that their Highnesses would quickly be sensible how much they had been imposed upon by him.
Notwithstanding all this, he was permitted to go to his Bishoprick, tho’ for no other reason, its like, but to give birth to a Schism, by which means the Portuguezes hoped to be able to compass their ends upon that Church the easier, Divide & impera, being a piece of policy that is well understood, and has been much practised by the Roman Church. And if this was their drift in sending him back to his Diocess, they were not out in their Policy, for Mar Joseph was not sooner in the Serra, than the whole Bishoprick was divided, some adhering to Mar Abraham, and others to Mar Joseph, as their true Prelate.
But Mar Joseph finding Mar Abraham’s Party to be much the more numerous, by reason of the Communication he had had with the Latins, did thereupon betake himself to the course that all distressed People, who preferr their own Interest to that of the Publick, take, and complains to the Portuguezes of Mar Abraham, not only as an Usurper, but as a most bitter Enemy to the Roman Church.
The Viceroy, who was glad of this occasion, straightways dispatch’d an Order to the Governour of Cochim, to have Mar Abraham apprehended, and to send him Prisoner to Goa, in order to send him to Rome, which was executed accordingly. But the Ship whereon Mar Abraham was Embarked, being forced by stress of Weather into Mazambique, a Port belonging to the Portuguezes in the Southern Coasts of Africk, he made a shift to escape, and by the way of Melindo and Ormus, to get to the Patriarch of Babylon, from whom having received new Briefs to Fortifie his Title, he resolved to return to his Bishoprick; but having afterwards considered better on the matter, and being sensible, that if he went thither without the Pope’s Order, that the Portuguezes would quickly make the Serra too hot for him, he altered his Mind, and resolved to try his Fortune at Rome, and to take a Journey thither over Land; being come to Rome, after having abjured his ancient Faith, and reconciled himself to the Church, and promised to reduce that of Malabar to its obedience, he obtained of Pius the Fourth, all such Briefs as were any ways necessary, having also the Title of Arch-Bishop, which he and his Predecessors had enjoyed, given him therein.
But being at Venice, in his way home, the Divines there discovering, as it is said, both from the Nature of the Opinions that he had abjured, and from his own Confession, that he had never been lawfully Ordained, did oblige him to receive all Orders, from the first tonsure to the Priesthood. He was ordained Priest by the Bishop of St. Salvador and Consecrated a Bishop by the Patriarch of Venice.
This Venetian Consecration, if it is not a downright Naggs - Head Story, is a Scurvy reflection upon the Pope’s Infallibility, who herein was not only deceived in a matter of Faet, in giving Briefs to one, as an Arch-Bishop, who really was not at all in Holy Orders, but he must also have been deceived in a matter of Doctrine, in being ignorant, that some of the Opinions which had been Abjured before him by Mar Abraham, were of such a nature as to incapacitate him for Orders.
While Mar Abraham was in this Voyage, Mar Joseph finding himself in the quiet Possession of his whole Bishoprick, did not forbear to profess and teach the Doctrines he had abjured in Portugal. The Bishop of Cochim, who was his next Neighbour, having heard thereof, acquainted the Arch-Bishop of Goa therewith, and he Don Anrique, the Cardinal Infante, who at that time Governed Portugal in the Minority of his Nephew Don Sebastian, and the Cardinal informed the Pope of the whole matter.
These repeated Tyrannies of the Portuguezes in the Indies, of dragging ancient Bishops thus out of their own Country and Diocess, and tumbling them so about the World, I cannot but reckon among those violent injustices for which Manuel de Faria in the very last words of his Asia Portuguesa, tells us, God has punished them so visibly. The observation is so remarkable, and to this day so litterally true, as I have been told by several intelligent Portuguezes, that I shall set it down in the Author’s own words. "Ponderacion muy
"notable ay en esto, y es, que dequanta persona
"passaran a la India ya como Governadores, ya
"come Capitanes, ya como Mercadores, aunque
"esto ultimo siempre sue de todos : y de quantos
"destos alcancaran groessissimas haziendas, no se
"ve oy in el Reyno de Portugal ninguna casa o
"Mayo razgo que se fundasse con ellas, o lo me-
"nos que sea cosa de importancia: ni tam poco
"ay en la India alguna casa grande desta calidad :
"aunque tambien aya avido alla Portugueses q
"iuntaron mucho y uvo algunos de a million, y de
"dos milliones y de a tres, y a un de a quarro, ye’l no
"luzirse a nadie considerablemente tanta hazien-
"da como tantos iuntaron, se hade entendar, que
"sue, y es,y fera pero por una de dos razones, o por
"ambas, la primera porq’ permetiendo Dios este
"viaie solo para dilatar su nombre, y verdedero
"culto, estos navigantes trataron por la mayor
"parte de lo material de la sacrilega codicia, co-
"metiendo muchas maldades, para hartarse, en
"vez de tractar de la religion : y otra porq’ lo
"mas desto sue ganado por medios injustos de ti-
"ranias, robos, y toda suerte de insolencia, como
"consta de muchos lugares destas Historias.
It is remarkable, that among all the Persons who have gone to the Indies, whether as Governours, Captains, or Merchants, of which sort most of them were in truth, there has not been one that has raised a Family of any consideration out of the Goods they have got in those Parts, either there or in Portugal, tho’ there have been several of them that have got there, one, two, three, or four Millions. Now, that nothing that’s considerable of all these vast Treasures, should any where appear, must be for one or both of these two Reasons, first, that whereas God permitted the Discovery of this Voyage, only for the propogation of his Name, and true Worship (but not by such barbarous Methods as the forementioned I dare say) these Travellers have, for the most part, pursued the ends of a Sacrilegious Covetousness, committing many Injustices to fill their Coffers, instead of having any regard to Religion; the other is, because the most of those Riches were gained by the unjust means of Tyrannies, Robberies, and all sort of Insolencies, of which you have many Instances in the foregoing History.
Pius V. upon this Issued forth a Brief, bearing date the 15th. of January 1567. directing it to Dom Jorge, Arch-Bishop of Goa, and commanding him to use all diligence to have Mar Joseph forthwith Apprehended and sent to Rome, in pursuance whereof he was seized, and sent Prisoner to Portugal, upon the first Ships that went, whence he was carried to Rome, where he died.
Neither were the Violences they made use of to Convert Infidels, any whit inferior to those they exercised upon the poor Chaldaean Christians, by which they came to provoke the Infidel Princes to that degree, that they had like to have lost all that they had in the Indies by it. For the Hidalcaon who Besieged Goa in the Year 1570. both in his Letters to the Viceroy Don Luis d’ Ataide, and in the Speech he made to his Captains, when he first communicated to them his design of driving the Portuguezes out of the Indies, gave those Violences for the chief cause of his War. Those Letters and Speech being too long to be here Inserted, I shall only set down so much of them as relates directly to this matter.
In his first Letter to the Viceroy, after having complained of some other Grievances, he tells him, That he was certainly informed that at Ormus, Dio, Chaul, and all the other Portugueze Ports, his Subjects Ships were all strictly searched, and all the Boys and Girls that were found Aboard, of whatsoever Quality, Abyssnes or Mahometans, were forcibly carried ashoar, and there detained from their Parents or Masters. This, saith he, is a matter that I cannot but be extreamly offended with; neither can I judge otherwise of your permitting such Violences, but that you have a mind to break with me, for if you had not I cannot be perswaded that your People durst presume to commit such Insolencies: He goes on. Let it suffice that no difference can happen between us, but what gives me great displeasure, and that I am both a Brother and an Allie of the King of Portugal, and do esteem you as my particular Friend, to put a stop to this matter, that so my Subjects may have no further cause to complain thereof. Besides, I am confident the King of Portugal will not thank any, that shall be instrumental in making a Breach between me and him, by compelling my Subjects thus against their Wills to turn Christians, a practice, saith he, that’s abominable in the sight of all the World; nay, I am confident that Jesus Christ himself, the God whom you adore, cannot be well pleased with such Service as this: Force and Compulsion in all such Cases, being what God, Kings, and all the People of the World do abominate. The work of turning People from one Religion to another, if it be not done by the Divine Inspiration, and the immediate Will of God can never be sincere, neither can Converts have any inward respect for a Religion, which they are compelled to Profess. I do therefore intreat you to see that this matter be speedily redressed, but especially that of taking Peoples Children from them by violence, which is a thing I stand amazed at, and am in duty bound to see remedied.
In his second Letter he thanks the Viceroy for an Order he had sent to Ormus, and the other Portugueze Ports, prohibiting all such Violences, but at the same time tells him, That his Order was not in the least regarded; for that the Portuguezes notwithstanding it, went on still in their former Courses, to which he tells him, If there were not a speedy and effectual stop put, it must necessarily beget a War betwixt him and the Portuguezes; adding, That as he knew that neither God, nor wise Kings, took any delight in Discords, so he was certain that there was no Religion in the World, that justified the forcing of People from one Religion to another.
And in his Speech to his Captains he tells them, The Portuguezes at first came among us, under the notion of Merchants, promising to help us to several Goods that we wanted, but that afterwards by making of trifling Presents to some weak Princes and other Arts, they had obtained leave to build Store - Houses for their Wares upon the Coast; but that instead of Ware-Houses, they had built Fortresses, by which means they had strengthned themselves so in India, both by Sea and Land, that it was more than time for the Natives to look about them, and to join together to extirpate such cruel Tyrants and Ravagers of so many Kingdoms, and Enemies to the general quiet and commerce of the World; and that for one thing especially, which was what no patience was able to endure, their compelling the Indians in all places, where they had power, to change their Religion.
In this Affair the Christian and Mahometan, of which Sect this Hidalcaon was, seem to have changed Parts, the Mahometan writing therein like a Christian, and the Christians behaving themselves like Mahometans.
Pudet haec opprobria nobis
Vel dici potuisse.
About this time the Dominican Friars, under pretence of building a Convent, built a Fortress at Solor, into which, as soon as it was finished, the Viceroy put a strong Garrison : There were perpetual Bickerings betwixt this Garrison and the Natives, in most of which, some of the Friars, as they were Converting those Infidels, with Swords in their hands, suffered Martyrdom.
We read of a famous Portugueze Missionary about this time, it was one Fernando Vinagre, who, tho’ a Secular Priest, Commanded the Squadron that was sent to the assistance of the King of Tidore; in which occasion he is said to have behaved himself both like a great Captain, and a great Apostle, and to have appeared one day in Armour, and another in a Surplice, and to have Baptized several in his Armour, with his Surplice over it. In these a la Dragoon Conversions, he was seconded by his Admiral Antonio Galvam, who with the assistance of Captain Francisco de Castro, is said to have Converted five kings in the island of Mazacar; and tho’ he was really no other than a St. Ruth, yet he is said by the Portugueze Historians to be another St. Paul, in Governing all that came under his power both with his Sword and with his Voice, A Sword and Voice, say they, worthy of a glorious Eternity. It was this Antonio that first discovered the king of Portugal’s special Title to the Clove, which, for having five points, he said, had the king of Portugal’s arms, which are the five Wounds of Christ stamp’d upon it.
The same Author tells us, and approves of what an Indian said of the Portuguezes, when in the height of their Triumphs: Let them alone, said the Indian, for they will quickly come to lose that as Covetous Merchants, which they have gained as admirable Soldiers; they now Conquer Asia, but it will not be long before Asia will Conquer them.
The Emperor of Persia is reported by the same Author to have made the same prediction, who being told by the Portugueze Ambassador, when he asked him how many of the Governours of the Indies Heads his Master had chopped off, that he had not taken off one, replied, if that is true, it is not possible the Portuguezes should hold the Indies long.
About this time the Portuguezes were driven out of the island of Ito by the Natives. They were stirred up to do it by a speech made by one Gemulio, a considerable Native, wherein he told the Portuguezes in a full Assembly of them, That if they Preached to others that there was a God in Heaven, who observed all that was done on Earth, and would certainly Reward all Good, and punish all Evil-Deeds, without believing it themselves, or without practising what they believed, they were certainly guilty of the Abomination, which such a God must detest above all others: He likewise told them, They were Strangers come from the very skirts of the World, and will you, faith he, who are the offspring of the shades, which the Sun leaves when it goes down, presume to Tyrannize over us, who entertained you so kindly, and have been so long a sanctuary to you? If these be the customs of your country, you must know they are what we Abominate; return, return therefore to your native darkness, or your ancient Habitations, where the want of Light will hide your Actions, and do you not come hither to commit them in the very apple of the Eye of the Sun, as it riseth out of his brightest Cradle. You preach Christ Crucified to us, and at the same time Crucifie those you have perswaded to believe in him. You will make others to be Christians, without appearing to be such yourselves. You must know we are not ignorant of what you have done to the King of Xael, and how you rewarded his great kindness and Civility to you, with Violences and Outrages, and his Subjects good turns with dishonouring their Wives: We know likewise how you have used the Queen of Aram, whom, after she had lost both her Kingdom and Husband to secure you, you have dishonourably thrown off, as one who could be of no further use to you. Be gone therefore immediately out of this Island, and hereafter don’t you presume to set your Foot, or so much as cast your Eye upon it. The Historian who relates this, tho’ a Portugueze, makes this reflection upon it, Thus we lose Places by our Insolencies, which we gained by our Valour.
When Mar Abraham returned to Goa over Land, by the way of Ormus, and found Mar Joseph shipped off for Portugal, thereupon he flattered himself with the hopes of meeting with nothing to molest him in the Possession of his Bishoprick; but he quickly found himself deceived, for having presented the Pope’s Briefs, and other papers he brought along with him to the Arch- Bishop, the Portuguezes not having the same reason to permit him to return to the Serra, as they had when they permitted Mar Joseph, which, as I have observed, was done on purpose to give rise to a Schism, he was told, that before they would put him in Possession of his Bishoprick, they must first have both the Briefs and his informations strictly examined, that so they might be satisfied he had not imposed upon his Holiness.
Wherefore, tho’ resolved whatever came on’t, never to let Mar Abraham go out of their hands, yet that they might not seem to refuse to pay a due respect to the Pope’s Briefs; the Arch-Bishop and others, after having examined all his papers, found several flaws in them, which were declared to be sufficient to justifie their detaining of him: This is no more than what the Canonists can do, and do daily in the clearest cases, it being impossible to have any Matrimonial or other cause drawn up, or worded so accurately, that the Canonists, and especially if the Pope desire it, will not find several Nullities in. Upon the publication of the nullity of the Pope’s Briefs, as having been obtained by misinformation, poor Mar Abraham, instead of being sent back in Triumph to his Bishoprick, as he expected, was, after all the Pains he had been at, confined to the Dominican Convent at Goa, there to remain till such time as the Pope’s Answer came to the Arch- Bishop’s Information of his case.
Mar Abraham, being sensible that to be confined till that came, was the same thing as to be condemned to be a Prisoner for Life, resolved, let what would be the issue, to try to make his escape, which, after several unsuccessful Attempts, he did, at last, upon an Holy Thursday at Night, while the Friars were all imployed in the Chapel, and having gotten over to the Continent, he posted away to Malabar, where he was received with great Joy and Festivity by all the Christians, who having two of their Arch- Bishops Prisoners among the Portuguezes, despaired of ever seeing another Babylonish Bishop among them.
The Viceroy and Arch-Bishop were much troubled at Mar Abraham’s having made his escape thus, and writ straightways to the Bishop of Cochim, and all the Governours upon the Coast of Malabar, to have him apprehended if he was above Ground; but Mar Abraham knowing how it would be , took care to keep himself, as far as he could, out of their reach, never adventuring to visit any of the Churches that were in the Neighbourhood of Cochim, or of any other Portugueze Garrison.
But tho’ after this Mar Abraham is said, in all his letters to the Portuguezes to have still professed himself a Romanist, and not only so, but to have re-ordained all that had been ordained by him formerly; yet it is certain, that in all things else he acted quite otherwise in his Diocess, where he continued not only to preach his old Doctrines, but in his Prayers still named the Bishop of Babylon as his Patriarch.
Gregory XIII. being informed of this by the Arch-Bishop of Goa, and other Prelates of the Indies, issued forth a Brief, bearing date the 28th. of November, 1578. directing it to Mar Abraham, and commanding him therein to repair to the next provincial Council that should be Assembled at Goa, to assist at it, and to observe all the Decrees that should be made therein, relating to his Bishoprick, and that he might not excuse his not obeying this Brief, by pretending that he could not do it with safety; the Pope likewise sent him Letters of safe Conduct, to go and come without being any ways molested.
to be continued............
(Please click for next portion)
Book 1| Book 2 | Book 3| Book 4